NCERT Notes for Class 9 Social Science Chapter 1 India Size and Location

India is one of the world’s oldest civilisations. It has made significant strides in agriculture, manufacturing, technology, and general economic growth. India has also made major contributions to the shaping of global history. You will study India’s extent and standard meridian in CBSE Notes Class 9 Geography Chapter 1 on India – Size and Location, as well as about India’s relationship with the rest of the globe through the International Highway of Trade and Commerce and India’s neighbours. Therefore, read through these CBSE Class 9 Social Science notes in detail.

CBSE Class 9 Social Science notes will assist students in studying the topic thoroughly and clearly.

These CBSE Class 9 Social Science notes were written by subject experts who made the study material very basic, both in terms of language and format.



  • India is a massive country in the Northern hemisphere. Between latitudes 8°4′ N and 37°6′ N and longitudes 68°7′ E and 97°25′ E, its mainland extends.
  • The Tropic of Cancer (23° 30′ N) divides India into nearly two equal parts. It connects Gujarat, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, West Bengal, Tripura, and Mizoram.
  • The Andaman and Nicobar islands, located south of the mainland in the Bay of Bengal, and the Lakshadweep islands, located south of the mainland in the Arabian Sea, are two groups of Indian islands.


In the north-west, north, and northeast, India is bounded by young fold mountains. South of 22° North latitude, India’s landmass begins to take on a cone shape. This landmass extends towards the Indian oceans, dividing them into the Arabian and Bay of Bengal seas. The mainland’s latitudinal and longitudinal extents are approximately 30° in both directions. Indeed, the East-West extent appears to be less than the North-South extent. North-South distance is 3214 kilometres, while east-west distance is 2933 kilometres.


India’s landmass covers an area of 3.28 million square kilometres, accounting for 2.4 percent of the world’s total geographical area. India is the world’s seventh-largest country, after Russia, Canada, the United States of America, China, Brazil, and Australia. India has a land border of approximately 15200 kilometres and a coastline of approximately 7516.6 kilometres, including the Andaman and Nicobar and Lakshadweep islands.

Indian Standard Time (1st)

Between Gujarat in the west and Arunachal Pradesh in the east, there is a nearly two-hour time difference. Thus, time along India’s Standard Meridian (82°30′ E) as it passes through Mirzapur (Uttar Pradesh) is designated as Indian Standard Time (IST) for the entire country.

As one moves from south to north, the latitudinal extent has an effect on the duration of day and night.

India And The World

India controls the majority of South Asia. It is strategically located between East and West Asia. The Indian landmass is the continent of Asia’s southern extension.

The trans-Indian ocean routes that connect Western Europe to East Asia provide India with a strategic central location. The Deccan Peninsula extends into the Indian Ocean, enabling India to maintain close ties with West Asia, Africa, and Europe on the western coast, and with South-East and East Asia on the eastern coast.

In comparison to other countries, India has the longest coastline on the Indian Ocean. This preeminent position justifies the Indian Ocean is named after the country.

India’s Contacts With The World

India’s contacts with the rest of the world have remained throughout the ages, but its relationships via land routes predate those via sea. The various passes through the northern mountains provide passageways for ancient travellers, whereas the oceans prohibited such interaction. Since ancient times, these routes have facilitated the exchange of ideas and commodities between India and the rest of the world.

The Upanishads and Ramayana’s concepts, the Panchtantra’s stories, and Indian numerals and decimal systems have spread throughout the world. Spices, muslin, and other wares were exported from India to various countries. The influence of Greek sculpture and the architectural style of West Asian domes and minarets can be seen throughout India.

Prior to 194 7, India had two distinct types of states: provinces and princely states.

The provinces were directly ruled by British officials appointed by the viceroy. Local hereditary rulers ruled the Princely States in exchange for local autonomy.

India’s Neighbours

  • India occupies a critical strategic location in South Asia.
  • It is divided into 29 states and seven union territories.
  • India is bounded on the north by Pakistan and Afghanistan, on the north by China (Tibet), on the north by Nepal and Bhutan, and on the east by Myanmar and Bangladesh.
  • Sri Lanka and the Maldives are two island countries located south of India across the Indian Ocean.

All of these countries are considered to be a part of India’s subcontinent.

India and Sri Lanka are separated by a narrow sea channel formed by the Palk Strait and the Gulf of Mannar, while the Maldives are located to the south of Lakshadweep. Thus, India is inextricably linked to its neighbours geographically and historically.


NCERT questions & answers from Chemical Reactions and Equations

Question 1.

Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below.

(i) The Tropic of Cancer does not pass through

(a) Rajasthan

(b) Odisha

(c) Chhattisgarh

(d) Tripura

Answer: (b) Odisha.

Odisha is not crossed by the cancer tropic. It bisects eight Indian states: Gujarat, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Chattisgarh, Jharkhand, West Bengal, Tripura, and Mizoram.

(ii) The easternmost longitude of India is

(a) 97°25′ E

(b) 68°7′ E

(c) 77°6’E

(d) 82°32’E

Answer: (a) 97°25′ E

(iii) Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal and Sikkim have common frontiers with

(a) China

(b) Bhutan

(c) Nepal

(d) Myanmar

Answer: (c) Nepal.

(iv) If you intend to visit kavaratti during your summer vacations, which one of the following Union Territories of India you will be going to 

(a) Puducherry

(b) Lakshadweep

(c) Andaman and Nicobar

(d) Daman and Diu

Answer: (b) Lakshadweep.

Kavaratti is the capital of India’s Lakshadweep Union Territory. Kavaratti is both a census town and the name of the atoll on which it is located. It is well-known for its immaculate white sand beaches and peaceful lagoons, which contribute to its popularity as a tourist destination.

(v) My friend hails from a country which does not share land boundaries with India. Identify the country.

(a) Bhutan

(b) Tajikistan

(c) Bangladesh

(d) Nepal

Answer: (b) Tajikistan 

Tajikistan is the only country in Central Asia that is not bordered by India. Afghanistan, China, Kyrgyzstan, and Uzbekistan all share a border with it. Numerous ethnic ties and external influences complicate Tajikistan’s national identity more than they do in other Central Asian republics.

Question 2.

(i) Name the group of islands lying in the Arabian Sea.

Answer: Lakshadweep islands lie in the Arabian Sea.

(ii) Name the countries which are larger than India.

Answer: Russia, Canada, U.S.A, China, Brazil, and Australia are the countries that are larger than India.

(iii) Which island group of India lies to its southeast?

Answer: Andaman and Nicobar island group lie to the southeast of India.

(iv) Which island countries are our southern neighbours?

Answer: Sri Lanka and the Maldives are our southern neighbours.

Question 3.

The sun rises two hours earlier in Arunachal Pradesh as compared to Gujarat in the west but the watches show the same time. How does this happen?

Answer:  The mainland’s latitude and longitude are approximately 30 degrees.Despite this, the east-west extent appears to be smaller than the north-south extent. 

Gujarat and Arunachal Pradesh share a two-hour time difference. As a result, the country’s standard time is determined by the time along India’s Standard Meridian (82°30’E), which passes through Mirzapur (in Uttar Pradesh).

As one travels northward, the latitudinal extension has an effect on the length of day and night.

Question 4.

The central location of India at the head of the Indian Ocean is considered of great significance. Why?

Answer: I ndia has developed close ties with West Asia, Africa, and Europe on the western coast, and with eastern Asia on the eastern coast, owing to its location at the head of the Indian

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