The earth’s crust is composed of various minerals found in rocks, which are removed through suitable refinement.

Minerals are necessary for human survival. They are characterised as a naturally occurring homogeneous substance with a specified internal structure.


  • Minerals are mixtures of homogeneous substances that make up rocks. Some rocks, such as limestone, are made up entirely of a single mineral, but the bulk of rocks are made up of numerous minerals in various amounts.
  • Minerals come in a variety of shapes and sizes in nature, ranging from the hardest (diamond) to the softest (talc).
  • Mineral classification: metallic, non-metallic, and energy minerals Ferrous (iron-containing) minerals, non-ferrous minerals, and non-metallic minerals are the three types of metallic minerals. Coal, petroleum, and natural gas are examples of energy minerals.


Where Are These Minerals Found?

  • Minerals are typically found in the form of ‘ores.’ An ore is a collection of minerals that have been combined with other elements.
  • Igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks all include minerals. Evaporation helps to generate minerals like gypsum, potash, salt, and sodium salt, especially in dry areas.
  • Alluvial deposits contain minerals that do not dissolve when exposed to water, such as gold, silver, tin, and platinum.
  • Ocean waters contain a large amount of minerals. Ocean waters provide the majority of common salt, magnesium, and bromine. Manganese nodules can also be found in abundance in the ocean belts.
  • India is fortunate to have mineral resources that are both plentiful and diverse. Peninsular rocks contain the majority of coal, metallic minerals, mica, and a variety of non-metallic minerals. The majority of petroleum resources are found in Gujarat and Assam’s sedimentary rocks. Rajasthan has a lot of non-ferrous mineral deposits.


These minerals account for around three-quarters of the overall value of metallic mineral output. They give a solid foundation for the growth of metallurgical industries.

Iron Ore: It is the most important mineral for the advancement of industry. Magnetite is the purest iron ore, with exceptional magnetic properties that make it very valuable in the electrical industry. In terms of volume, hematite ore is the most important industrial iron ore.

Manganese: Steel and ferro-manganese alloys are the most common applications. Bleaching powder, pesticides, and paints are all made with it.

Non-Ferrous Minerals

Copper, bauxite, lead, zinc, and gold are just a few of the minerals used in the metallurgical, engineering, and electrical industries.

  1. Copper: Copper production in India is insufficient. It’s a good conductor that’s commonly found in electrical cables, electronics, and the chemical industry.
  2. Bauxite: The breakdown of a wide variety of rocks rich in aluminium silicates results in their deposits. Aluminium is a valuable metal.
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Non-Metalic Minerals

Mica: It is one of the most important minerals in the electronic and electrical industries.

Rock Minerals

Limestone: It is a basic raw material for the cement industry and is required for blast furnace smelting of iron ore.


It takes millions of years to produce and concentrate mineral resources. They must be conserved because they are finite and non-renewable. Mineral conservation can be achieved by recycling metals, utilising scrap metals, and using other substitutes.


All activities, such as cooking, propelling vehicles, operating machines in industries, and so on, require energy. Coal, petroleum, natural gas, uranium, and electricity can all be used to generate energy. 

There are two types of energy resources: conventional and non-conventional.

  • Conventional Source Of Energy 
    1. Coal : It is India’s most important fossil fuel. In order to meet its commercial energy needs, India is heavily reliant on coal.
    2. Natural Gas : In the petrochemical sector, it is employed as a source of energy as well as an industrial raw material. Because of its low carbon dioxide emissions, it is considered an environmentally beneficial fuel.
    3. Petroleum : It offers heat and illumination, as well as lubricants for machinery and raw materials for a variety of industries. Petrochemical refineries serve as a “nodal industry” for the synthetic textile, fertiliser, and chemical sectors.
    4. Electricity : It is primarily produced in two ways: hydro turbines provide hydroelectricity, and thermal power is produced by burning other fuels such as coal, petroleum, and natural gas. Hydroelectric power is a renewable form of energy.
  • Non- Conventional Source Of Energy : Solar energy, wind energy, and other renewable energy sources are referred to as non-conventional energy sources.
    1. Nuclear Or Atomic Energy : It’s made by experimenting with the structure of atoms. Uranium and thorium, both of which are abundant in Jharkhand and Rajasthan’s Aravalli ranges, are utilised to generate atomic or nuclear power. Kerala’s monazite sand is also high in thorium.
    2. Solar Energy : India receives a lot of sunlight because it is a tropical country. As a result, there are numerous options for harnessing solar energy.
    3. Wind Power : India has a lot of wind power. From Nagercoil to Madurai, Tamil Nadu has the largest wind farm cluster. Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Gujarat, Kerala, and other states have wind farms. Wind energy is used effectively in Nagercoil and Jaisalmer.
    4. Bio-Gas : In rural areas, it is primarily utilised for home consumption. In rural India, biogas plants that use cattle manure are known as ‘Gobar gas plants’.
    5. Tidal Energy : Tides in the ocean can be harnessed to generate electricity. The Gulf of Kutch in India provides optimal conditions for tidal energy utilisation.
    6. Geothermal Energy : It refers to the heat and power generated by utilising heat from the earth’s interior. In India, two experimental projects to harness geothermal energy have been established: one in the Parvati Valley near Manikaran in Himachal Pradesh, and the other in the Puga Valley in Ladakh.


Energy is a vital component of economic progress. There is a strong need to design a long-term energy development strategy. India is currently one of the world’s least energy efficient countries. For sensible use of our limited energy resources, a cautious approach should be used.

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NCERT Solved Question Answer CBSE Class 10 Geography Chapter 05 – Minerals and Energy Resources

Multiple choice questions

(a) Which mineral is formed by the decomposition of rocks leaving a residual mass of weathered material?

(a) coal 

(b) bauxite 

(c) gold

(d) zinc

Answer: (a) coal 

(b) Koderma Gaya-Hazaribagh belt of Jharkhand is the leading producer of which one of the following minerals? 

(a) Copper

(b) Bauxite

(c) Iron-ore

(d) Mica

Answer: (d) Mica

(c)  Minerals are deposited and accumulated in the stratas of which of the following rocks?

(a) Sedimentary rocks

(b) Igneous rocks

(c) Metamorphic rocks

(d) None of the above

Answer:  (a) Sedimentary rocks

(d) Which one of the following minerals is contained in the Monazite sand ?

(a) Oil

(b) Uranium

(c) Thorium

(d) Coal

Answer: (c) Thorium

(1) Distinguish between the following in not more than 30 words :

  • Ferrous and non-ferrous minerals.
  • Conventional and non-conventional sources of energy.


  1. The ferrous and non-ferrous minerals may be distinguished as given below

Ferrous minerals

  1. Ferrous minerals, like iron ore, manganese, nickel, cobalt, etc., contain iron.
  2. About three-quarters of the value of all metallic minerals produced comes from ferrous minerals.
  3. These minerals give metallurgical industries a solid foundation on which to grow.

Non-ferrous minerals

  1. Copper, lead, tin, bauxite, and gold are all examples of non-ferrous minerals.
  2. Non-ferrous mineral reserves and production in India are not very good.
  3. In the metalworking, engineering, and electrical industries, these minerals are very important.
  1. Conventional and non-conventional sources of energy are distinguished as given below :

Conventional sources of energy

  1. People have been using traditional energy sources for a long time.
  2. These include coal, oil, natural gas, uranium, and electricity (both hydel and thermal etc.).
  3. Conventional sources have a limited amount of energy that can’t be replaced.

Non-conventional sources of energy

  1. Sources that aren’t usually used are new.
  2. They are solar, wind, tidal, geothermal, biogas, and atomic energy.
  3. These are sources of energy that never run out.

(2) What is a mineral?

Answer: Geologists say that a mineral is a naturally occurring, uniform substance with a clear internal structure.

(3) How are minerals formed in igneous and metamorphic rocks?

Answer: Minerals are made in igneous and metamorphic rocks, as described below:

  • In igneous rocks and rocks that have changed shape, Funerals may happen in the cracks, crevices, faults, or joints.
  • The smaller spots are called veins, and the larger ones are called lodes.
  • Most of the time, they are made when minerals that are liquid, molten, or gaseous are forced upward through holes in the earth’s surface.
  • As they rise, they cool down and get harder.
  • The main metal minerals, such as tin, copper, zinc, and lead, are found in veins and lodes, which are small and large occurrences.

(4) Why do we need to conserve mineral resources?


(1) We need to conserve mineral resources due to the reasons as mentioned below :

  1. Our industry and agriculture depend on mineral deposits and the things we make from them. But the total amount of workable mineral deposits is only 1% of the height of the earth.
  2. It took millions of years for minerals to form and get concentrated.
  3. The geological process of making minerals is very slow, but they are used up quickly. It may lead to a shortage in the near future.
  4. The mineral resources are limited and cannot be replaced.
  5. Even rich mineral deposits in a country like India are valuable but don’t last long.
  6. When ore is taken out of the ground over and over again, the cost of doing so goes up because minerals have to be taken out from deeper and deeper levels. At the same time, its quality decreases.
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(2) Steps for the conservation of minerals :

  1. Everyone should work together to make sure that our mineral resources are used in a planned and sustainable way.
  2. Technology needs to keep getting better so that low-quality ores can be used at low cost.
  3. Recycling metals with scrap metal and other substitutes also helps save mineral resources for the future.
  1. Answer the following questions in about 120 words :

(1) Describe the distribution of coal in India.


(1) Distribution of coal in India: It is the main source of power generation in India. Major places where coal is found in India are as given below :

  1. Gondwana coal deposits: They are about 200 million years old. Gondwana coal in Damodar valley, which is metallurgical coal, is India’s biggest coal deposit (West Bengal-Jharkhand). These are mostly Jharia, Dhanbad, Raniganj, and Bokaro coalfields. Besides the Godavari, the Mahanadi, Son, and Wardha valleys also have coal deposits.
  2. Tertiary coal deposits :
    1. These have been around for about 55 million years.
    2. The north-eastern states of Meghalaya, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, and Nagaland are home to these coal deposits.

(2) Why do you think that solar energy has a bright future in India?

Answer: Solar energy has a bright future in India as mentioned below :

  1. India is a tropical nation. It has a lot of possibilities for using solar energy.
  2. Photovoltaic technology turns sunlight directly into electricity.
  3. Solar energy is quickly becoming popular in rural and remote areas.
  4. The largest solar plant in India is in Madhapur, near Bhuj. Solar energy is used to sterilise milk cans at this plant.
  5. It is expected that using solar energy will make rural homes less reliant on firewood and dung cakes, which will help protect the environment and make sure farmers have enough manure.
  6. Not only this, but solar energy can also be used for solar home lights, solar lanterns, and solar street lights.
  7. It can be used to keep a building warm during the winter in cold areas.
  8. Solar energy can be made at about 20 MW per square km per year. So, if it is made at its highest level of production, it can solve many problems.

3. Fill the name of the correct mineral in the crossword below:



  1. Manganese
  2. Limestone
  3. Magnetite
  4. Anthracite
  5. Bauxite
  6. Copper
  7. Gypsum


  1. Gold
  2. Hematite
  3. Mica
  4. Tertiary
  5. Tin


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