Facts That Matter
Nationalism emerged as a force in the nineteenth century, causing profound changes in Europe’s political and mental worlds and resulting in the development of the nation-state.
A nation-state was one in which the majority of its population had a feeling of shared identity, not only its rulers.
Frederic Sorrieu, a French artist, visualised his goal of a world composed of ‘democratic and social republics,’ showed it to the world, and supported nationalism.
The French Revolution and the Idea of the Nation
- The first overt expression of nationalism occurred in France during the French Revolution of 1789.
- It said that the people will now form the country and define its destiny.
- Politico-constitutional developments were visible. For instance,
- The monarch’s sovereignty is transferred to the French people.
- A sense of collective identity amongst the French people was created through various measures and practices.
- Napoleon utilised revolutionary ideals in order to rationalise and streamline the whole system.
- The Civil Code of 1804 was enacted, often referred to as the Napoleonic Code. The system saw significant changes with the simplification of administrative divisions, the development of transportation and communication systems, the elimination of guild limitations, the standardisation of weights and measurements, and the adoption of a single currency. Additionally, the right to property was secured.
The Making of Nationalism in Europe
Eastern and Central Europe were ruled by authoritarian kingdoms, whose domains were populated by a varied range of people. Numerous distinctions made it difficult to develop a feeling of political utility.
The Aristocracy and the New Middle class
- Nationalism and the nation-state concept were established. Industrialisation started in the nineteenth century in France and portions of Germany. New social groupings emerged:
- The working class
- The middle class.
- Slowly but steadily, national unity became popular among the educated, liberal middle classes, eventually leading to the removal of aristocratic privileges.
What did Liberal Nationalism Stand for?
Liberalism as an ideology emerged, putting an end to the state’s meddling in society’s economic life. Market freedom was attained, together with the abolition of state-imposed limitations on the movement of commodities and money. Napoleon’s administration policies were modified.
A New Conservatism after 1815
- Britain, Russia, Prussia, and Austria defeated Napoleon jointly in 1815, and the Treaty of Vienna of 1815 was signed to end the war. The Bourbon family was returned to power under the terms of this treaty, and France lost the lands seized by Napoleon.
- A succession of states were established along France’s borders to prevent further French expansion.
- In the north, Belgium was established, while in the south, Genoa was annexed by Piedmont. Prussia gained significant additional lands along its western borders, while Austria gained control of northern Italy. Russia received a chunk of Poland, while Prussia received a portion of Saxony.
- Fear of repression pushed many liberal-nationalists underground in the years after 1815.
- In a number of European governments, secret organisations formed to educate revolutionaries and promote their ideas.
- Giuseppe Mazzini, an Italian revolutionary, became a member of Carbonari’s secret society. He then formed two further underground organisations in Marseilles and Berne: Young Italy and Young Europe.
The Age of Revolutions : (1830 – 1848)
- The years 1830-1848 are associated with the era of revolutions. The first upheaval occurred in July 1830 in France. Now, liberal revolutionaries have deposed the Bourbon kings. Louis Philippe was elevated to the position of constitutional king. Belgium seceded from the Netherlands-based United Kingdom of the Netherlands.
- In 1821, the Greek struggle of independence began.
- Finally, Greece was recognised as an independent country in 1832 by the Treaty of Constantinople.
The Romantic Imagination and National Feeling
Through art and poetry, stories and music, culture aided in the formation of the nation’s concept. It aided in the expression and arousal of nationalist views.
Language, too, had a significant part in the formation of nationalist sentiments.
Hunger, Hardship and Popular Revolt
The 1830s were a period of severe economic distress throughout Europe. Throughout the first part of the nineteenth century, Europe had a massive growth in population, which resulted in increased unemployment.
- Rural residents relocated to cities to live in overcrowded slums;
- Small manufacturers in towns faced tough competition from imports of low-cost machine-made goods from England.
- Peasants toiled under the weight of feudal dues and duties in those parts of Europe where the nobility retained control. Food price increases or a poor crop year resulted in widespread pauperism in both town and country.
- Food shortages and massive unemployment forced Paris’s inhabitants into the streets.
1848: The Revolution of the Liberals
In 1848, a liberal (educated middle class)-led revolution occurred as well. They demanded constitutionalism in conjunction with national unity.
In the German regions, a considerable number of political organisations convened in Frankfurt and voted for an all-German National Assembly. A constitution was developed for a German country that would be led by royalty but subject to a Parliament.
The Making of German and Italy
Germany – Can the Army be the Architect of a Nation?
Following 1848, nationalist sentiments among middle-class Germans were common. The German confederation and Prussia started organising themselves into a German state.
Three wars were fought—the Danish War, the Austro-Prussian War, and the Franco-Prussian War—all of which ended in Prussian triumph and finished Germany’s unification process in 1871. Kaiser William of Prussia was proclaimed German Emperor.
- Like Germany, Italy suffered from political fragmentation for a lengthy period of time. Italians were dispersed among a number of dynastic states and the multinational Habsburg Empire.
- Italy was split into seven states in the mid-nineteenth century, of which only one, Sardinia-Piedmont, was controlled by an Italian royal house. Three revolutionaries spearheaded the movement of unification: Giuseppe Mazzini, Count Camillo de Cavour, and Giuseppe Garibaldi.
- Giuseppe Mazzini organised Young Italy in the 1830s in order to put together a clear platform for an united Italian Republic.
- In addition to official forces, a huge number of armed volunteers commanded by Giuseppe Garibaldi joined the fray.
- In 1861, Italy was unified, and Victor Emmanuel-I1 was crowned king of the United Italy.
The Strange Case of Britain
Britain’s history of nationalism was distinct from that of the rest of Europe. There was no British nation prior to the seventeenth century. The British Isles were inhabited by individuals of many ethnic origins, including English, Welsh, Scots, and Irish.
In 1707, the Act of Union between England and Scotland established the ‘United Kingdom of Great Britain’. As a result, Scotland’s unique culture and political institutions were destroyed. In 1801, Ireland was forcefully incorporated into the United Kingdom.
Visualising the Nation
Artists sought a way out in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries by personifying a country. At the time, nations were portrayed as feminine characters.
The feminine figure evolved into a national allegory. Marianne was christened in France, a popular Christian name that emphasised the concept of a people’s country. Germania, thus, became a metaphor for the German people.
Nationalism and Imperialism
After 1871, the Balkans became the primary source of nationalist tension in Europe.
The powers (Russia, Germany, England, and Austro-Hungary) were determined to oppose the other nations’ grip on the Balkans, which resulted in a succession of conflicts in the area and eventually the First World War.
Nationalism, when combined with imperialism, drove Europe into catastrophe in 1914.
Here you will learn the basics of CBSE Class 10 History Notes Chapter 01 – The Rise of Nationalism in Europe in a simple language, it is for CBSE English medium students who are studying under Central Board of Secondary Education following NCERT textbook and curriculum for class 10 here you will find all the necessary and important definitions notes suggestion solved question paper sample papers with video lectures made by expert teachers
NCERT Solved Question Answer CBSE Class 10 History Chapter 01 – The Rise of Nationalism in Europe
Question 1. Write a note on :
(a) Giuseppe Mazzini
(b) Count Camillo de Cavour
(c) The Greek war of independence
(d) Frankfurt Parliament
(e) The role of women in nationalist struggles.
- Giuseppe Mazzini: Giuseppe Mazzini was born in 1807 in Genoa. He was a member of the secret Carbonari group. In 1831, when he was 24 years old, he was sent away because he was planning a revolt in Liguria. He then set up two more secret groups. The first one was in Marseilles, and the second was in Berne. Both were made up of young men with similar ideas from Poland, France, Italy, and Germany. Mazzini thought that God made nations to be the natural groups of people.
- Count Camillo de Cavour: Cavour was in charge of bringing the different parts of Italy together, but he was neither a revolutionary nor a democratic politician. He spoke French much better than Italian, just like many other wealthy and well-educated members of the Italian elite. In 1859, Austrian soldiers were defeated by Sardinia-Piedmont because Cavour made a smart political alliance with France. Along with regular forces, a large number of armed volunteers led by Giuseppe Garibaldi joined the war.
- The Greek war of independence: The Greek War of Independence made Europe’s educated elite feel more nationalist. Greece has been part of the Ottoman Empire since the 15th century. As revolutionary nationalism grew in Europe, it helped start a fight for Greek independence in 1821. Other Greeks who were living in exile and many West Europeans who liked ancient Greek culture helped the Greek nationalists.
- Frankfurt Parliament: In the different parts of Germany, a large number of political groups made up of middle-class professionals, businessmen, and wealthy craftsmen got together in Frankfurt and voted for an all-German National Assembly. On May 18, 1848, 831 newly elected MPs marched in a happy parade to the Church of St. Paul in Frankfurt to take their seats in the Frankfurt parliament. They made a constitution for Germany that said a parliament should run a monarchy. When the delegates offered Friedrich Wilhelm IV, King of Prussia, the crown on these terms, he refused and joined other monarchs in opposing the elected assembly.
- The role of women in nationalist struggles:
- Men and women are shown in art about the French Revolution in the same way.
- A woman is a symbol of freedom.
- Liberal nationalism supported the idea that everyone should be able to vote, which led to women getting involved in nationalist movements in Europe.
- Women had set up their own political groups and magazines.
- They had been to marches and rallies.
- In France, women’s clubs have sprung up in more than sixty cities.
- The Revolutionary and Republican Women’s Society was the most well-known.
- One of the most important things they wanted was to have the same political rights as men. They weren’t allowed to vote in the Assembly elections, though.
- Even though women were active in nationalist struggles, they were given few or no political rights. For example, at the Frankfurt Parliament in the Church of St. Paul, women were only allowed to sit in the visitors gallery and watch.
Question 2. What steps did the French revolutionaries take to create a sense of collective identity among the French people ?
Answer: The French revolutionaries took the following actions to instil a feeling of communal identity in the French people:
- The words “fatherland” (la patrie) and “citizen” (le citoyen) were used for the first time.
- The tricolour was chosen as the new French flag to replace the royal standard.
- The Estates General was renamed the National Assembly.
- In the name of the country, people wrote new songs, took oaths, and remembered the sacrifices of the past.
- It was decided to set up a system of centralised management.
- All citizens have the same rules to follow.
- There are no longer any internal customs fees or charges.
- A system of standard weights and measures was put into place.
- Since French was written and spoken in Paris, it became the national language. Regional languages were looked down upon.
- It was decided that the French nation would free people in Europe from despotism and help other people become countries.
Question 3. Who were Marianne and Germania? What was the importance of the way in which they were portrayed?
Answer: In the 1800s, artists made female allegories to represent the whole country. She was given the name Marianne in France, which was a popular Christian name that emphasised the idea of a people’s homeland. The red cap, the three colours, and the cockade were all inspired by Liberty and the Republic. Marianne statues were put up in public places to remind people of the national symbol of unity and to get them to identify with it. Images of Marianne can be seen on coins and stamps. So, Germania became a metaphor for the German nation. In pictures, Germania wears a crown of oak leaves, because the German oak is a symbol of heroism.
Question 4. Briefly trace the process of German unification.
Answer: After 1848, democracy and revolution were no longer linked to nationalism in Europe. Conservatives often used nationalist feelings to advance state power and take over Europe’s politics.
As a result, Germany and Italy became two separate countries:
- As a result of Napoleon’s administrative efforts, a group of 39 states called a confederation was formed from a group of principalities. Each had its own weights and measures and currency. These things made it hard for the new commercial classes to trade and grow their businesses.
- In 1834, a customs union, or Zollvere, was formed. It allowed its members to trade freely. During a time when Germany was politically divided, it created real national unity in economic matters. Nationalism was boosted by a wave of economic nationalism.
- As a result of the French Revolution of 1848, men and women from the liberal middle classes in Germany, which did not have a nation state at the time, called for constitutionalism and national unification.
- In May 1848, a large number of political groups met in Frankfurt to vote for an all-German National Assembly. This assembly made a constitution for a German nation led by a monarchy and ruled by a parliament. The offer was made to the Prussian King, but he declined it. As a result, the liberal effort to build a nation failed.
- After that, Prussia and its leader, Otto von Bismarck, who is known as the “father of modern Germany,” took on the work of uniting Germany.
- Bismarck’s policy was built on “blood and iron.” With the help of the Prussian army and bureaucracy, he reached his goals.
- Bismarck reorganised the German army and improved battle training in 1862. In 1864, he made a deal with Austria to fight Denmark for Schleiswig, the southern provinces of Denmark, while Austria ruled Holstein. Bismarck started a war with Austria over an unrelated border dispute, and Prussia beat Austria in the Seven Weeks War that followed. Holstein was given to Prussia by the peace treaty, and Austria was forced to stay out of all German matters.
- Then there was a war with France. Bismarck made up a note from the French envoy in 1870, claiming that the diplomat had insulted the Prussian King. After he leaked this letter to both communities, there were calls for war. At this time, the southern provinces joined Prussia’s cause. Prussia went to war with France in 1870, but France was defeated. Alsace Lorraine was given to Germany at the end of the war.
- In January 1871, Prussian King William I was proclaimed German Emperor in the Hall of Mirrors at the Palace of Versailles. As a result, Germany’s unification was done. This showed that Prussian state power was better. It was a victory for Bismarck’s “blood and iron” policy, which tended to encourage militarism and authoritarianism in Germany. The new state made it a top priority to update Germany’s monetary, banking, legal, and judicial systems. Prussian policies and ways of doing things were often copied by the rest of Germany.
Question 5. What changes did Napoleon introduce to make the administrative system more efficient in the territories ruled by him ?
Answer: Napoleon started putting into place many of the changes he had already made in France in the huge area that was now under his control. Napoleon definitely destroyed democracy in France by going back to monarchy, but he used revolutionary ideas in administration to make the whole system more rational and effective. In 1804, the Napoleonic Code, also called the Civil Code, got rid of all privileges based on birth, made sure that everyone was treated the same by the law, and gave everyone the right to own property. This Code was sent to all of the areas that were controlled by the French. In the Netherlands, Switzerland, Italy, and Germany, Napoleon streamlined administrative divisions, got rid of the feudal system, and freed peasants from serfdom and manorial dues. In the towns, guild restrictions were also removed. Systems for transportation and communication have been improved. Farmers, craftsmen, workers, and new businessmen all enjoyed their newfound freedom. Businesspeople and small-scale manufacturers of goods realised that having consistent laws, standard weights and measurements, and a single national currency would make it easier to move goods and capital from one region to another.