You have already learned why power sharing is critical in a democracy and how different levels of government and diverse social groups exchange power in the preceding chapter. You will learn how leaders in power manage the opposing demands and pressures that exist in a democracy in this chapter. The chapter focuses on indirect methods of political influence, such as pressure groups and movements. We’ve created a list of all the key points in the form of CBSE Notes Class 10 Political Science Chapter 5 – Popular Struggles and Movements. Additionally, you may download these notes in PDF format from the URL below and read them offline.

CBSE Class 10 Social Science notes will assist students in studying the topic thoroughly and clearly.

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Popular Struggles in Nepal and Bolivia

Movement for Democracy in Nepal

Nepal was a monarch state until 1990, with the king exercising executive authority.

In 1990, in response to a popular uprising against absolute monarchy, King Birendra committed to political changes. This is how the shift from absolute monarchy to constitutional monarchy occurred.

While the monarch retained ceremonial authority as head of state, practical power was exercised by publicly chosen deputies.

The killing of Royal Family of Nepal

King Birendra and his family were assassinated in a mystery slaughter in 2001, and King Gyanendra ascended to the throne.

He was unwilling to submit to democratic governance. He removed then-Prime Minister Sher Bahadur Deuba in February 2005, disbanded the democratically elected government, and martial law was  imposed.

Movement for Restoring Democracy in Nepal

In April 2006, a movement was launched with the goal of reclaiming people’s authority over the government from the monarch.

All of the country’s main political parties established the Seven Party Alliance (SPA) and organised a four-day strike in the capital Kathmandu. They called for the reinstatement of Parliament, the establishment of an All Party Government, and the establishment of a new assembly.

This protest became a strike after the Maoist insurrection and many additional organisations joined. Almost every day, over a lakh people came to demand the restoration of democracy. Security personnel were unable to maintain control over such a multitude.

Establishment of Democracy in Nepal

On 24 April 2006, the ultimatum’s last day, the king was obliged to concede all three requests. The SPA appointed Girija Prasad Koirala of the Nepali Congress as the interim government’s new Prime Minister.

The reconstituted Parliament assembled and enacted legislation stripping the monarch of the majority of his powers. The SPA and the Maoists reached an agreement on the manner in which the new Constituent Assembly would be elected.

Additionally, Nepal was designated a secular state, abolishing the country’s prior Hindu Kingdom identity.

Nepal was one of the 1990’s ‘third wave’ nations to achieve democracy. This battle became known as Nepal’s second democratic movement. This battle of the Nepalese people serves as an inspiration to democratic activists worldwide.

Bolivia’s Water War

  1. Bolivia is a Latin American nation that is impoverished. The World Bank pressed Bolivia’s government to relinquish control of municipal water supplies.
  2. The government handed over these rights to a multinational corporation for the city of Cochabamba (MNC). The corporation promptly doubled the price of water.
  3. Several people received their bills in the form of 1,000 rupees and the striking fact was that it was a nation where the average monthly salary was roughly 5,000 rupees. This resulted in an outpouring of public outrage (January 2000).
  4. In the city, a four-day general strike was successful. This strike was organised by a new coalition of human rights, community activists and coalition of labour.
  5. The strike was called off after the administration agreed to discuss, but nothing was solved.

Repression by Police

When the unrest resumed in February (the next month), the State Police returned to violent repression. In April, another strike occurred, and the government declared martial law.

However, the people’s strength compelled MNC officials to evacuate the city and compelled the government to accede to all of the demonstrators’ requests.

The contract with the Multinational Company was terminated and the municipal authority’s water supply was restored at the previous prices. This conflict was dubbed Bolivia’s Water War.

Democracy and Popular Struggles

Both the Nepalese and Bolivian uprisings were successful, but their effect was very different. While Nepal’s movement sought to promote democracy, Bolivia’s battle was against a particular government policy.

Despite their differences, both tales include themes that are essential to the study of democracies’ history and future.

Both conflicts included widespread mobilisation. Both cases had a pivotal role in political organisation. From these two conflicts, the following significant conclusions may be drawn:

(i) Democracy evolves throughout time as a result of public struggles. Democracy entails struggle between those who now wield power and those who desire to do so.

Conflict occurs while a nation is transitioning to democracy, expanding democracy, or deepening democracy.

(ii) Through popular mobilisation, the democratic dispute is resolved. Occasionally, a disagreement may be settled by the use of existing institutions such as the Judiciary and Parliament.

It is conceivable that certain key choices would be made unanimously and without any dispute, but this would be an anomaly.

(iii) The mobilisation and conflict are founded on a newly organised political system. With the assistance of organised politics, spontaneous public engagement becomes successful. Numerous entities comprise organised politics, including pressure groups, political parties, and movement organisations.

Mobilisation and Organisations

In a democracy, every major conflict is fought by a variety of various types of organisations. These organisations serve a dual purpose.

One option is by active involvement in competitive politics. It is accomplished via the formation of political parties, the contestation of elections, and the formation of administrations.

However, not every person has the need, the desire, or the ability to engage in direct political engagement beyond voting. Another method is indirect involvement, which enables citizens to persuade governments to listen to them.

They create an organisation and engage in activities that further their interests or points of view.

  1. These are referred to as interest groups or pressure groups. Occasionally, individuals decide to operate together without joining an organisation.
  2. In Nepal, the Seven Party Alliance issued an indefinite strike call (SPA). The Nepalese Communist Party joined the popular uprising (Maoist).
  3. Numerous non-political organisations were also active in this campaign. These included labour unions, indigenous peoples’ organisations, teachers, attorneys, and human rights organisations, among others.
  4. Water war in Bolivia was headed by a group named FEDECOR (Federation Departmental Cochabamba de Regantes), which consisted of environmentalists, engineers, and local professionals.
  5. It was backed by a farmer federation that drew support from irrigation manufacturing workers’ unions, homeless street children, middle-class students, and the Socialist Party.
  6. Bolivia’s Socialist Party came to power in 2006.

Pressure Groups and Movements

Pressure groups or interest groups are organisations that aim to protect certain interests via government policy influence.

However, unlike political parties, they do not seek to share or control political power directly. These clubs or organisations are created when individuals who have a similar vocation, interest, aim, or viewpoint get together to accomplish a shared goal.

As with an interest group, a movement seeks to influence politics rather than actively compete in elections. However, unlike interest groups, movements are loosely organised.

For instance, Narmada Bachao Andolan, the Right to Information Movement, the Anti-Liquor Movement, the Environmental movement and the Women’s Movement, and all share a flexible organisational structure.

They rely on widespread spontaneity rather than on interest groups. Their decision-making is more ad hoc and temporary.

Sectional Interest Groups and Public Interest Groups

Sectional interest groups represent a subset or segment of society. They work to advance the interests of a certain segment or set of society, for example, labour unions, business groups, and professional organisations.

In general, their primary interest is with the advancement and well-being of its members, not with the welfare of the whole community.

Occasionally, these organisations reflect a common or broad interest. FEDECOR, a Bolivian organisation, is an example.

Public interest organisations advocate for the public or common good, rather than for a particular goal.

They want to assist organisations. For instance, an organisation campaigning against bonded labour or child labour does it not for its own benefit, but for the benefit of those who suffer.

Occasionally, members of a public interest organisation may engage in activities that benefit both themselves and others.

For instance, BAMCEF (Backward and Minority Communities Employees Federation) is a mostly government-employee-led organisation that campaigns against caste discrimination.

It advocates for its members who are victims of caste prejudice. However, its primary concern is social justice and equality for all members of society.

Movement Groups

Movements encompass a diverse range of groups. The majority of movements are issue-based and aim to accomplish a particular goal within a certain time period. Other movements are more broad or generic in nature, with the long-term aim of achieving a wide objective.

Examples of Movements Focused on a Single Issue and Having a Short Term Goal The Narmada Bachao Andolan began with the particular concerns of those displaced as a result of the construction of the Sardar Sarovar Dam on the Narmada river. Its purpose was to obstruct the dam’s construction.

However, it grew into a larger movement resulting in questioning all such large dams. These movements often have a clear leader and some organisational structure, although their real lifespan is typically brief.

A Movement with More Than One Issue and a Long-Term Goal is an example of this kind of movement. Such movements include the Women’s Movement and the Environmental Movement.

There is no centralised organisation that directs or governs such movements. Each of these movements has its own organisation, autonomous leadership, and sometimes divergent opinions on policy issues, yet they all have a common purpose and strategy.

Occasionally, these wide movements are accompanied by a loose umbrella organisation, such as NAPM. The National Alliance of Peoples’ Movements (NAPM) is a network of networks.

This informal organisation, which organises the actions of a huge number of peoples’ movements in our nation, is composed of many movement organisations fighting particular concerns.

Pressure Groups and Movements  Influencing Politics

While movements and interest groups are not actively involved in party politics, they do have political positions and attempt to influence political parties. Movements and Pressure groups have a number of techniques of influencing politics.

They attempt to get public support and sympathy for their causes and actions by conducting meetings, information campaigns, and submitting petitions, among other methods.

They also organise protests, such as strikes or disruptions of government programmes, in order to get the government to consider their proposal.

Business organisations often hire skilled lobbyists or finance costly advertising. Certain members of movement organisations or pressure groups may serve on committees and official bodies that advise the government.

Relationship Between Political Parties and Pressure Groups

Pressure organisations and Political parties may have a variety of relationships. Some are straightforward, while others are deceptive.

These are the

In certain circumstances, pressure groups are created or directed by political party officials or serve as an extension of political parties. For example, in India, the majority of labour unions and student organisations are either founded by or linked with a major political party.

Occasionally, political parties emerge from movements. For instance, after the Assam Movement led by students against ‘foreigners’ came to a conclusion, the Asom Gana Parishad was formed.

In Tamil Nadu, the origins of parties such as the DMK (Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam) and AIADMK (All India Anna Oravida Munnetra Kazhagam) may be traced back to a protracted social reform campaign in the 1930s and 1940s.

Generally, the link between interest or movement organisations and political parties is not that straightforward. They often hold viewpoints that are diametrically opposite to one another.

Political parties have taken up new concerns brought by movement organisations. The majority of political parties’ new leadership originates from interest or movement organisations.

Is the Influence of Pressure Groups  Healthy?

At first glance, it may seem that organisations promoting the interests of one party should have little effect in democracy. A democracy must safeguard the interests of all citizens, not just one.

Additionally, it may seem as if these organisations wield power without accountability. While political parties are required to confront the electorate in elections, these organisations are not responsible to the electorate. In a democracy, exerting pressure on the rulers is a beneficial activity. Public interest organisations and movements are beneficial in combating undue influence and reminding the government of regular individuals’ demands and concerns.

In the existence of other groups, it is difficult for a single group to acquire supremacy over society. A group’s pressure on the government to adopt policies will be met by another organisation.

The government is informed about the desires of various segments of the population. This eventually results in an imprecise balance of power and accommodation of opposing interests.

NCERT Question Answer Class 10 Political Science (Civics) Chapter 5 – Popular Struggles and Movements

Question 1. In what ways do pressure groups and movements exert influence on politics?

Answer: Like an interest group, a movement group tries to change the political system without directly running for office. Movements, on the other hand, are not as well organised as interest groups. Their way of making decisions is more casual and open to change. They depend a lot more on people coming together on their own than an interest group does.

Question 2. Describe the forms of relationship between pressure groups and political parties.

Answer: Most of the time, there is not a clear link between parties and interest or movement groups. They often stand for things that go against each other. Still, they are talking to each other and making plans. Movement groups have brought up new issues that political parties have taken up. Most of the new leaders of political parties come from groups with a specific interest or a movement.

Question 3. Explain, how the activities of pressure groups are useful in the functioning of a democratic government.

Answer:

The activities of pressure groups are useful in the functioning of a democratic government in the following ways:

  1. Deepens democracy and counter undue influence on the government: Rich and powerful people sometimes try to get the government to make a policy or make a decision that helps them. When this happens, pressure groups can stop it by putting pressure on the government to make a decision that helps regular people. Putting pressure on the government to do what’s best for the public is a good thing, and it makes democracy stronger.
  2. Sectional groups and balance of power: Even groups that only care about one part of the whole play an important part. Since society is made up of many different groups, no one can take over. If one group puts pressure on the government to make policies that help them, another group will put pressure on the government not to make policies that help the first group. So, different interest groups from different parts of society help the government keep a balance of power and find ways to accommodate people with different goals.

Question 4. What is a pressure group? Give a few examples.

Answer: Pressure groups are groups that try to change what the government does. But, unlike political parties, pressure groups do not try to directly control or share political power. When people with similar jobs, hobbies, goals, or points of view get together to reach a common goal, they form these groups.

People called the fight in Nepal a “movement for democracy.” People’s movements include Narmada Bachao Andolan, the Movement for Right to Information, the Anti-Liquor Movement, the Women’s Movement, and the Environmental Movement.

Question 5. What is the difference between a pressure group and a political party ?

Answer: A pressure group is a group, organised or not, that tries to get its own goals done. They fight and try to get to the same place. They don’t run for office, but they try to change the government in different ways.

On the other hand, political parties take part in competitive politics in a direct way. They run for office to get the most votes and form a government. Their goal is to get into politics. They’re interested in more than one thing. They have their own ideas and ways of getting what they want.

Question 6. Organisations that undertake activities to promote the interests of specific social sections such as workers, employees, teachers and lawyers are called …………….. groups.

Answer: interest

Question 7. Which among the following is the special feature that distinguishes a pressure group from a political party ?

  1. Parties take political positions, but pressure groups don’t care about politics.
  2. There are only a few people in pressure groups, but there are a lot of people at parties.
  3. Pressure groups don’t want to be in charge. Political parties, on the other hand, do.
  4. Pressure groups don’t try to get people to do anything, but parties do.

Answer: (c) Pressure groups do not seek to get into power, while political parties do.

Question 8. Match List I (organisations and struggles) with List II and select the correct …………. answer using the codes given below the lists :

List IList II
1. Organisations that seek to promote the interests of a particular section or groupA. Movement
2. Organisations that seek to promote common interestB. Political parties
3. Struggles launched for the resolution of a social problem with or without an organisational structureC. Sectional interest groups
4. Organisations that mobilise people with a view to win political powerD. Public interest groups

 

1234
(a)CDBA
(b)cDAB
(c)DCBA
(d)BCDA

Answer: (b) C, D, A, B.

Question 9. Match List I with List II and select the correct answer using the codes given below the lists :

List IList II
1. Pressure groupA. Narmada Bachao Andolan
2. Long-term movementB. Asom Gana Parishad
3. Single issue movementC. Women’s Movement
4. Political partyD. Fertiliser Dealers Association

 

1234
(a)DCAB
(b)BADC
(c)CDBA
(d)BDCA

Answer: (a) D, C,A, B.

Question 10. Consider the following statements about pressure groups and parties :

  1. Pressure groups are an organized expression of the interests and views of specific social sections.
  2. Pressure groups take positions on political issues.
  3. All pressure groups are political parties.

Which of the statements given above are correct ?

(a) A, B and C

(b) A and B

(c) B and C

(d) A and C

Answer: (b) A and B

Question 11.

Mewat is one of the most backward areas in Haryana. It used to be a part of district Gurgaon and Faridabad. The people of Mewat felt that the area will get better attention if it were to become a separate district. But political parties were indifferent to this sentiment. The demand for a separate district was raised by Mewat Educational and Social Organisation and Mewat Saksharta Samiti in 1996. Later Mewat Vikas Sabha was founded in 2000 and carried out a series of public awareness campaigns. This forced both the major parties, Congress and the Indian National Lok Dal, to announce their support for the new district before the assembly elections held in February 2005. The new district came into existence in July 2005. In this example, what is the relationship that you observe among movement, political parties, and the government? Can you think of an example that shows a relationship different from this one?

Answer: Different groups, such as the Mewat Educational and Social Organisation, the Mewat Saksharta Samiti, and the Mewat Vikas Sabha, backed the movement. Mewat Vikas Sabha’s campaigns to raise awareness made Congress and the Indian National Lok Dal have to support them.

Most movements start because people don’t like how the government runs things. In this case, the Indian National Lok Dal was in power and supported the need for a new district because elections were coming up in the state. None of the parties wanted to ignore what the people wanted. Since Congress won the election in 2005 and had backed the movement, the new district was made in July of that year.

So, this movement was different from other movements. In other movements, like Narmada Bachao Andolan, different groups were against what the government was doing about building big dams. In this type of movement, the government is not involved.=

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