CBSE Notes Class 10 Economics Chapter 1 - Development

STUDY NOTES of Development

Meaning of Development 

The term “development” refers to a country’s overall progress. 
Freedom, participation, economic equality, security, a dignified life, and a decent standard of living are only a few examples.

Different People and Different Goals

The different perspectives on development are often contradictory. The following two components of development are depicted in this diagram.   

(i) Individuals may have distinct developmental objectives.

(ii) One person’s development may not be the same as another’s. It could even be harmful to others.

For example, industrialists desire additional dams to meet their electrical needs, yet dams displace local communities, submerge forestland, and perhaps damage the entire biological system.

Income and Other Goals

  1. Income seems to be the most crucial component of progress since it allows people to purchase products and services. People also want equal treatment, freedom, education, security, work respect, peace, and a clean environment, among other factors.
  2. As a result, people consider a variety of goals when considering development, and developmental goals include both economic progress and improved quality of life.

National Development

  1. Individuals have diverse aims in mind, and their motivations for national growth are likely to differ as well. For example, a farmer wishes India to grow in one manner, a trader wants it to develop in another, and a teacher wants it to develop in a kind of.
  2. Giving priority to national development goals that benefit a great amount of people.

Comparison of  Countries or States

Countries are categorised as developed, underdeveloped, or developing based on their level of development.

Comparison Through National Income

National income, often known as total revenue, is the sum of all of the country’s people’ earnings during a duration of time. Developed countries, such as the United States, the United Kingdom, and Japan, have higher overall incomes.

  1. However, because countries have diverse populations, comparing total earnings can not reveal the average amount made by an individual.

Comparison Through Per Capita Income

Per income per capita allows for a more accurate comparison. It is computed by multiplying a country’s total income (GDP) by its total population. It’s also known as median income.

World Bank Report on Per Capita Income

Every year, the World Bank produces the World Development Report (WDR), which compares countries based on per capita growth.

The bank has classified the countries as follows

(i) Rich countries are defined as those with a PCI of US $ 12,056 per year or above in 2017.

(i) Low-income countries are defined as those with a PCI of US $ 955 or less.

India’s per average spending in 2017 was around US $ 1820, making it a lower – middle income country.

Income and Other Criteria

Apart from wealth, other factors should be considered when assessing a country’s or region’s development level. To grasp this, consider a comparison of three states: Haryana, Kerala, and Bihar from distinct perspectives.

Some Comparative Data on Haryana, Kerala and Bihar


Infant Mortality Rate per 1,000 (2016)

Literacy Rate (%) (2001)

Net Attendance Ratio for Class I-V (2013-2014))

Per capita income for 2015-16

















Various characteristics of development can be derived from the comparison table as follows:

(i)  Haryana has the highest per capita while Bihar has the lowest. This suggests that employment opportunities and earnings potential are limited in Bihar.

(ii)  Kerala has the lowest IMR, whereas Bihar has the highest. A high IMR indicates that healthcare facilities are inadequate, and a high per capita income does not imply better healthcare.

(iii) Kerala has the greatest literacy rate, while Bihar has the lowest.

(iv) Kerala has the greatest net attendance rate, while Bihar has the lowest.

These factors suggest that per capita income is not the ideal criterion for determining development, but that other basic amenities and quality of life are as important and must be adequately accounted for. 

Public Facilities

More money or a higher average income may not guarantee you a better life. It cannot purchase a pollution-free environment, pure medicines, or disease protection.

As a result, public facilities such as primary and secondary schools, healthcare, and hygiene are essential for living.

Public Distribution System

Some states, such as Tamil Nadu, want a Public Distribution System (PDS) for distributing food to poor rural people, even though Jharkhand will not.

In Tamil Nadu, 75% of people living in rural regions use a ration shop, whereas only 8% of rural residents in Jharkhand are allowed to use it.

Body Mass Index (BMI)

  1. Another crucial part of development is nutrition. A benchmark known as the Body Mass Index (BMI) is used around the world to evaluate whether or not an adult is malnourished.
  2. BMI is a ratio that is calculated by dividing a person’s weight by the square of his or her height.
  3. BMI = Weight in kg/(height in metres) 2 .
  4. A person is undernourished if their BMI is less than 18.5, and overweight if it is greater than 25. For example, if a 1.65 m tall adult’s weight is less than 50.5 kg, the person is deemed undernourished.
  5. When a person’s weight exceeds 68 kg, though, they are labelled overweight. This criterion does not apply to youngsters who are still growing.

Human Development Report

Best Method to Measure Development

One of the greatest methods for measuring development is the UNDP’s Human Development Report.

The report makes comparisons across countries based on three criteria:

  1.  Living standard (Per Capita Income) 
  2. Health status (Life expectancy) 
  3. Educational levels of the people (Literacy rate and Enrollment ratio)  

In HDR 2018, India is ranked 130th. To quantify human progress, the Human Development Index (HDI) takes into account public health, education, poverty level, inequality, and environmental factors.

Sustainability of Development

Economic development has been achieved at the expense of natural resources and the environment in both developed and developing countries.

Excessive mining of iron, gold, silver, or coal, as well as crude oil extraction, for example, depletes the stock of these resources. Environmental pollution is caused by smoke and other toxic substances generated by factories.

Problems with water and air pollution are harming people’s lives and will continue to do so in the future.

Environmental Degradation and Sustainable Development

Our mishandling of natural resources will lead to environmental degradation that will extend beyond national and state borders. The emphasis now is on environmental sustainability, which allows us to use resources wisely.

Sustainability is a new concept that refers to the wise use of natural resources by keeping consumption to a bare minimum so that new generations can benefit.

The following are some examples of environmental degradation

(i) Groundwater in India – Overuse and expanding urban settlements are contributing to the depletion of groundwater supplies in Punjab, West U.P., and Central and South India’s hard rock plateau. India’s groundwater resources have decreased by 40%.

(ii) Exhaustion Of Natural Resources – According to the June 2018 issue of World Energy Review, the world’s total crude oil reserves will last only 50 years since countries are rapidly depleting their oil supplies and alternative energy sources are still not adequately developed.

NCERT Notes for Class 10 Social Science (Economics) Chapter 1 – Development

CBSE Notes Class 10 Economics Chapter 1 will introduce you to the concept of Development. You continue to study development challenges in higher grades. This chapter will address several topics, such as what should a nation look like? What are the absolute necessities that humans require? Can life be made better for everyone? How should people coexist? Is it possible to achieve more equality? Not only in Economics but also in History and Political Science, are the solutions to these problems to be found. This is because our contemporary way of life is inspired by the past.

CBSE Class 10 Social Science notes will assist students in studying the topic thoroughly and clearly.

These CBSE Class 10 Social Science notes were written by subject experts who made the study material very basic, both in terms of language and format.


1 MARKS QUESTIONS of Development

multiple choice questions - 1 marks of Development

short questions - 2-3 marks of Development

long questions - 5 marks of Development


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