The Rise Of Nationalism In Europe - Chapter 1 Social Science History Class 10 CBSE NCERT Notes

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Important Terms From This Chapter Remember 

  • Serfdom– a system under which presents the air Force to live and work under feudal Lords. 
  • Absolutist– it means a government or system of rule that has no inhibition or restraint on power exercised and in history the term refers to a form of monarchical Government that was centralized militarized and repressive in nature. 
  • Utopian– a vision of a society that is ideal and unlikely to exist. 
  • Habsburg Empire– this Empire was an Austria-Hungary including the reason of Tyrol Austria Sudetenland and Bohemia. 
  • Ideology– a system of Ideas that reflects a particular social and political vision. 
  • Conservatism – it is a political philosophy that focuses on the importance of tradition, established institution customs, and preferred gradual development rather than a quick change. 
  • Plebiscite– a direct vote by which all people of a region are asked to accept or reject a proposal. 
  • Ottoman Empire– it was a Turkish Empire ruled by the caliph of The Spiritual and temporal head of the Muslims. 
  • Ethnic– this term focuses on a common racial tribal or cultural or region or background that accompany it identifies or claims. 
  • Allegory– An allegory is when an abstract idea, such as our liberty, is expressed through a person or a thing. Allegorical stories have two meanings: literal and metaphorical.

The Rise Of Nationalism In Europe 

THE FRENCH REVOLUTION AND THE IDEA OF NATION 

During the nineteenth century, nationalism emerged as a driving force in Europe, resulting in the rise of nation-states in place of multinational dynastic empires. 

The 1789 French Revolution paved the way for the modern Nation-state. The French Revolution turned upside down the old monarchy order and developed the growth of popular nationalism.

To represent the nation as a united community, the French Revolution introduced new concepts such as la Patrie, which means “fatherland,” and la citoyen, which means “citizen,” and also a new French flag among the French people.

It established a centralized administrative system that provided uniform laws for all citizens.

Regional dialects were discouraged, and the French language was spoken and written in Paris, where it was accepted as the country’s common language.

NAPOLEONIC CODE 

Napoleon abolished democracy in France, but he established a Revolutionary principle by enacting the Civil Code of 1804 (also known as the Napoleonic code).

The code terminated all birth-based advantages, established equality under the law, and protected the right to own property. It also eliminated the feudal system and liberated peasants from serfdom and manorial dues.

The Guild system was removed and transport and communication systems were improved during his tenure. 

Universal laws were established which standardized weights and measures and common national currency which helped each and every section of the society. 

THE MAKING OF NATIONALISM IN EUROPE 

Germany, Italy, and Switzerland were divided into kingdoms, duchies, and cantons. 

During the mid 18th century rulers had their autonomous territories and they did not share a collective identity or common culture. 

Some of the important reasons which led to the rise of nationalism in Europe are :

  1. Rise of the middle class 
  2. Spread of ideology of liberalism 
  3. A new spirit of conservatism and Treaty of Vienna 
  4. Rise of revolutionaries 

ARISTOCRACY AND THE NEW MIDDLE CLASS 

Socially and politically aristocracy was the dominant class in the continent. 

They owned estates and properties both in the countryside and in townhouses. In western and central parts of Europe, there was a growth of commercial classes whose existence was based on the production for the market, due to industrialization these new social groups called a working-class middle class made up of Industrialist Businessman professionals came into existence. 

It was among the educated liberal middle class that the idea of national Unity gained popularity. 

The new definition of the nation-state which was given by Ernest Renan 

A nation is the culmination of a long past of endeavor, sacrifice, and devotion. A nation is a large-scale solidarity existence is a daily plebiscite. 

MEANING OF LIBERAL NATIONALISM 

The ideas of national Unity in the early 19th-century weight loss related to the ideology of liberalism. For middle-class liberalism stood for freedom for individuals and equality for all before the law of the land. 

In France, the right to vote and be elected was only granted to those who owned property. Individuals without property and women were prohibited from this right, while liberalism in the economic system stood for market freedom and the elimination of state-imposed limitations on the movement of products and capital.

In 1834 a customs Union or Zollverein was introduced which remove tariff barriers and reduce the number of currencies from over 30 to 2

NEW CONSERVATISM AFTER 1815 

Followed by the defeat of Napoleon in 1815 the European governments were driven by a spirit of conservatism.

Conservatives believe that established traditional institutions of society and state like the monarchy, church, social hierarchy, property and the family should be preserved. 

The European powers like Britain, Russia Prussia and Austria who came together and defeated Napoleon met at Vienna to drop an agreement for Europe. 

This Congress or meeting was hosted by Austrian chancellor Duke Metternich which did the Treaty of Vienna of 1815. 

The important points of the Treaty of Vienna are

  1. The Bourbon dynasty which was removed during the French revolution was restored to power. 
  2. France lost the territories which it gained or NX during the Regime of Napoleon. 
  3. A number of states were set up on the boundaries of France to prevent an expansion in the future. 
  4. The German confederation of 39 States which was set up by Napoleon was not disturbed. 
  5. In the East, Russia was provided with a part of Poland while the procedure was given a portion of Saxony 

The main intention of this Congress was to restore the monarchies which were defeated and overthrown by Napoleon and create a new conservative order in Europe. 

20 conservative regimes were set up in 1815 where autocratic and liberal nationalism opposed these monarchical forms which were established after the Vienna Congress and believed that the creation of a nation-state was important.

THE AGE OF REVOLUTIONS FROM 1830 TO 1848 

Liberalism and nationalism were deeply involved and associated with the revolutions in many regions of Europe such as Italian and German States and the provinces of the Ottoman Empire Ireland and Poland.

The first revolution started in France in July 1830. 

The July revolution started an uprising in Brussels which led Belgium to break away from the United Kingdom of the Netherlands. 

The struggle for independence in Greece also started in the year 1821 and the Treaty of Constantinople of 1832 recognised Greece as an Independent Nation. 

THE EMERGENCE OF NATIONALIST FEELINGS 

The emergence of nationalism did not occur solely as a result of wars and territorial expansion; culture also played a significant role in developing the concept of national art, poetry, and storytelling, as well as music, all of which helped express and shape people’s patriotic beliefs.

Romantic artists and poets criticize the glorification of reason and Science and focus on emotions, intuition and mystical feelings which they tried to create a sense of shared collective Heritage based on the concept of nation. 

Romantic German philosopher joe Hahn Gottfried herder who lived from 1744 to 1803 claimed that true German culture was to be discovered among the common people- called das volk

Poland no longer existed as an independent territory and kept nationalistic feeling alive through music and language

HUNGER HARDSHIP AND POPULAR REVOLT 

1830 was the great economic crisis in Europe in the first half of the 19th century and an enormous increase in population across Europe. 

Populations from rural areas moved and migrated to cities to live in overcrowded slums. 

The misery of workers in a town was so extreme that in 1845 Weavers of Silesia village had to lead a Revolt against contractors who supplied the raw material and gave them orders to finish Textiles but drastically reduce their payments. 

On 4th June at 2:00 p.m. A large crowd of Weavers marched in pairs up to the mention of their contractors demanding higher wages and they were treated with threats and e by the contractor with the support of the Army. 

In 1848 food shortage and widespread unemployment brought the population of Paris out on the roads barricades were erected and Louis Philippe was forced to flee. A national assembly claimed a republic and granted suffrage to adult males above 21 and guaranteed the right to work. 

1848 THE REVOLUTION OF THE LIBERALS 

In different parts of Europe like Germany Italy Poland and Austria Hungary empire, men and women of liberal middle class combine the demands for the creation of a nation-state. 

This demand was based on the constitution, freedom of press and freedom of association. 

MAY REVOLUTION 

On 18th may 1848 around 831 representatives mast in festive procession to take their place in the Frankfurt Parliament which convened in the church of Saint Paul where the drafted a constitution for germination which was to be headed by monarchy which was subject to a parliament 

When deputies offered the Crown on these terms to Friedrich Wilhelm 4 the existing king of Russia he rejected it and joined other monarchs to fight this elected assembly. 

This Parliament was dominated by middle class hu who oppose this these the Bans of workers and artisans and eventually lost the support 

In the end the Army was called in and this Assembly was forced to disband.

ISSUE OF POLITICAL RIGHTS TO WOMEN 

The issue of providing political rights to women was a very controversial one within the liberal Movement in which a large number of women were participating actively over the years. 

Women were forming their own political association and founding newspapers which were taking part in this political movement. In the year 1848 A new conservative force was able to suppress these liberal movements but could not restore the old order. 

Serfdom and bonded labour was abolished both in harrisburg and in Russia.

THE MAKING OF GERMANY AND ITALY 

UNIFICATION OF GERMANY 

After 1848 National sentiments often were introduced and promoted by conservative for capturing State Power and political domination over Europe. In Germany National list feelings were widespread among the middle class and in 1848 they tried to unite the different regions of German Confederation into a nation state governed by an elected parliament. Russia took the leadership of this movement for National unification and the previous Chief Minister Otto Von Bismarck was the architect of this process with the help of pRussian army and bureaucracy. 

Some major events that occurred during the time of unification of Germany were: 

  1. There was a wall with Austria, Denmark and France which ran over seven years and ended with Prussian victory and completed this process of unification. 
  2. On 18 January 1871  an assembly consisting of Princess of German States representatives of the army and important present ministers including Chief Minister and otto Von Bismarck claimed the new German Empire headed by Kaiser William 1 of prussia.
  3. The new state give a strong emphasis on modernising the currency, banking system, legal and judicial system in Germany 

UNIFICATION OF ITALY 

In the middle of 19 century, italy was divided into seven different states out of which only one state that was sardinia piedmont was ruled by an Italian princely house or family 

Some of the famous personalities who were involved in the unification of italy where: 

1.Giuseppe Mazzini: He was involved during the 1830 and sought to put together iI a coherent programme for a unitary Italian Republic. He formed to underground societies, 1 was young Italy in Marshal and second was young Europe in Benre 

Mechanic called him as the most dangerous enemy of our social order

2.Count camillo De cavour 

Unification of Italy was much credited to the diplomacy of Chief Minister Cavour, who was the prime minister of piedmont from 1852 to 1860 

Tactful diplomatic Alliance with France hi engineer and succeeded to help Sardinia piedmont in defeating the Austrian forces in 1859 

  1. Gieseppe Garibaldi 

He was a central figure in the unification of Italy. In the year 1833 he met with mazini and joined the young Italy movement. 

He participated in the Republican uprising in Piedmont in the year 1834 and in 1854 he supported with a manual for his effort to unify all the Italian States. 

In 1860 he LED the famous expedition of thousands to Southern Italy with his Red shirt Army. 

In 1867 he LED the army to Rome to fight the papal States where French Garrison was stationed and in the year 1870 France withdrew its Troops and purple stage were finally e added to Italian States.

MAJOR EVENT WHICH LED TO THE UNIFICATION 

Proclamation of United Italy: In the year 1860 the Army which comprised of regular Troops and armed volunteers mast into South Italy and the Kingdom of Two sicilies and they succeeded in winning the support of the local presence in order to drive out the Spanish rulers 

India 1861 Victor Emmanuel 2 was proclaimed king of United Italy and the states of tuscany modern apartment and people joined hands with sardinia 

By March 1860 the entire Centre Italian stage where unanimously United with speed mod and Rome became the part of sardinia and this weight the final unification of Italy was achieved in the year 1871 

THE GROWTH OF GREAT BRITAIN 

There was no existence of the British Empire or British Nation before 18 century. The primary identities of the people who inhabited or lived in the British I’ll wear ethnic once like English Welsh Scottish and Irish 

The growth of Great Britain as a nation state can be e figure out sequentially with the points given below 

  1. When the English Nation steadily grew and wealth importance and power it was able to extend its influence over other nations of Islands 

2 the English Parliament which sees power from monarchy in 1688 at the end of attractive conflict was instrument through which a nation state with England at its Centre came to existence 

INCORPORATION OF SCOTLAND IN UNITED KINGDOM 

The act of Union of the Year 1707 between England and Scotland resulted in the formation of United Kingdom of Great Britain which meant that England was able to improve its influence on Scotland hence the British Parliament was dominated by its english member

INCORPORATION OF IRELAND 

And was treated the same way as Scotland but this country was divided into Catholic and protestant the English site supported the protestant of Ireland to establish dominance over largely Catholic country and The Revolt raised by Catholics was suppressed 

And after a failed Revolt led by Wolfe Tone and his United Irishmen in the year 1798 Ireland was forcibly joined with the United Kingdom of Britain in 1801.

A new British Nation was made through the propagation of dominant English culture and the symbol of new Britain was a British flag which is also known as union jack and the national anthem was god save our Noble king and the english language was introduced. 

Later on there was always an armed conflict between Ireland and the United Kingdom and there was an array and different ir-a which came and forth with the United Kingdom like we have Maoist in India.

VISUALISING THE NATION 

Artists in the 18th and 19th centuries found a way to personify a bi personifying Nation. Nation square was portrayed as female figures, the female form which was chosen to person if the nation did not stand for any particular woman in real life. The female figure becomes an allegory of the nation 

In France the female allegory was named Marianne and Germania became the allegory of the German Nation

NATIONALISM AND IMPERIALISM 

By the last quarter of 19-century nationalism no longer retained its idealistic liberal democratic sentiment and during this. Groups bike and more intolerant with each other and we’re ready to start war with each other

BALKANS THE SOURCE OF NATIONALIST TENSION IN EUROPE 

The Balkans was a region of geographical and ethnic variation comprising modern-day Romania Bulgaria Albania Greece Macedonia Croatia Bosnia and Herzegovina Slovenia Serbia and Montenegro whose citizens were broadly known as slavs. 

A large part of the Balkans was under the control of the Ottoman Empire and the Balkan area became an area of intense conflict powers like Russia Germany England Austria Hungary Empire non countering this hold of power over the Balkans and extending its control over the area which led to a series of War and finally resulted in World War 1.

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