The population is an important component of social science. Human beings are both producers and consumers of natural resources on the planet. Individuals have developed technology and adapted natural resources to their needs. For example, coal was merely a piece of rock until humans invented technology and changed it into a resource.’ It is critical to understand how many people live in a nation, where they live, how and why their population is growing, and what their characteristics are. CBSE Notes Class 9 Geography Chapter 6 – Population will assist you in understanding population size and distribution, population growth and change processes, and finally, population features.

CBSE Class 9 Social Science notes will assist students in studying the topic thoroughly and clearly.

These CBSE Class 9 Social Science notes were written by subject experts who made the study material very basic, both in terms of language and format.


A census is an official count of people that is done every few years. In 1872, India had its first (partial) census. In 1881, however, the first full census was done. Every 10 years, it is done. 2011 was when the last census was done. The census of India gives information about the number of people living there.

Here are the three things that worry us about population:

  • Size and distribution of population: It talks about how many people live in the country and where they live.
  • Population growth and processes of population change: It talks about how the number of people has grown and how they are made up has changed.

Characteristics or qualities of the population: It talks about a person’s age, sex ratio, level of education, job structure, and health.

Population Size And Distribution

The arrangement or distribution of a country’s population in various locations is referred to as population distribution. The population’s size and dispersion may be examined under two headings.

One represents population size and distribution in terms of numbers, while the other represents population distribution in terms of density.

India’s Population Size And Distribution By Numbers

According to the 2011 Census, India’s population was 1,210 million, accounting for 17.5% of the world’s population.

It is dispersed throughout the different states, with Uttar Pradesh having the largest population (199 million, or about 16.49 per cent of the country’s population) and Sikkim having the smallest (0.6 million, or approximately 0.05 per cent of the country’s population). Delhi has the largest population (16.75 million), while Lakshadweep has the smallest (64,429).

Almost half of India’s population resides in only five states: Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Bihar, West Bengal, and Andhra Pradesh, whereas Rajasthan, the biggest state, has a population of just 6%.

India’s Population Distribution By Density

The population density of the different states provides a clearer idea of the unequal population distribution. The population density of an area (state or nation) is defined as the number of people living in a unit area (sq. km).

India is the third most populous nation in the world, behind Bangladesh and Japan.

India’s population density was 324 people per square kilometre in 2001 (it rose to 382 people per square kilometre in the 2011 Census), with West Bengal having the greatest density at 904 people per square kilometre and Arunachal Pradesh having the lowest at just 13 people per square kilometre.

According to the 2011 Census, Bihar has the greatest population density at 1,102 people per square kilometre, while Arunachal Pradesh has the lowest at 17 people per square kilometre.

The nation is split into three areas based on population density.

  • High population density states: These states are defined by flat plains with rich soils and an abundance of rainfall, particularly in the Northern plains and Kerala.
  • Moderate population density states: These states are defined by their mountainous and rocky landscapes, moderate to low rainfall, and shallow, less productive soil. Assam and the majority of the peninsula state.

Low population density states: States having a population density of less than 250 inhabitants per square kilometre area defined by difficult topography (mountainous and desert) and unfavourable climate conditions. Arunachal Pradesh, Sikkim, and Jammu & Kashmir are just a few examples.

National Population Policy

In 1952, the Government of India launched its first Family Planning Programme to promote individual health and welfare. The government established the National Population Policy (NPP 2000) in 2000, with the following main goals.

  1. Providing a policy framework for the free and obligatory education of children up to the age of 14.
  2. Reduce infant mortality to less than 30 deaths per 1000 live births.
  3. Vaccination of all youngsters against all vaccine-preventable illnesses.
  4. Promoting girls’ delayed marriage.
  5. Making family welfare a programme focused on the individual.

Population Growth And Processes Of Population Change

Population Growth

The increase in the population of a nation or state over a certain period of time is referred to as population growth. Typically, it is computed at a ten-year period. The change may be represented in absolute terms or as an annual growth rate.

Absolute Increase Of Population: It refers to the absolute numbers added to the population each year ‘or decade. It is calculated by subtracting the earlier population (2001) from the subsequent population (that of 2011).

Annual Growth Rate Of Population: The annual growth rate of population is the pace at which the number of people in a population increases as a fraction of the starting population in a given year.

It is given as a percentage each year. For instance, a growth rate of 2% per year implies an increase of two individuals for every 100 individuals in the original population.

Population Growth Rate Since Independence

India’s population growth rate rose gradually throughout the years, from 361 million in 1951 to 1210 million in 2011. If this pace of growth continues, India would overtake China as the world’s most populated nation by 2045.

Processes Of Population Change/Growth

Natural population growth, or growth rate, is defined as the difference between birth and death rates.

Birth Rate: The birth rate is defined as the number of live births per thousand people in a given year. In India, the birth rate has historically been greater than the mortality rate.

Death Rate: The death rate is defined as the number of deaths per thousand people in a given year. In India, mortality rates have decreased dramatically over the past 50 years as a result of improved healthcare and nutrition.

Trend of Population Growth Due to Birth Rate and Death Rate: Until 1980, rapid population growth was facilitated by high birth rates and decreasing mortality rates.

Following that, as a consequence of government initiatives and greater awareness, the birth rate began to decrease as well, resulting in a steady reduction in population growth.

Migration: It refers to the migration of individuals across areas and countries. Internal migration refers to the movement of individuals inside a nation (from one location to another).

It has no effect on the population size of a region, but it has an effect on the population distribution. International migration refers to the movement of people between countries. It alters the country’s population size and distribution.

Migration Pattern In India

  1. In India, the majority of recent migration has been from rural to urban regions. This is because rural regions face poverty and unemployment (Push factors), whereas urban areas have greater job possibilities and improved living circumstances (Pull factors).
  2. From 17.29 per cent of the total population in 1951 to 31.8 per cent in 2011, the urban population has grown from 17.29 per cent to 31.8 per cent. Between 2001 and 2011, the number of million-plus cities increased significantly from 35 to 53.

Characteristics Or Qualities Of The Population

Sex Ratio

  1. The sex ratio refers to the proportion of females to men in a population. In India, the sex ratio has historically been unfavourable to females owing to cultural factors and people’s immoral behaviour.
  2. Certain states, such as Kerala, have a very favourable gender ratio.
  3. According to the 2011 census, Kerala has a sex ratio of 1084, compared to 940 for the rest of India.
  4. Puducherry has 1038 females for every 1000 males, compared to Delhi’s 866 females for every 1000 men and Haryana’s 877 females for every 1000 males.

Age Composition

The age composition of a nation refers to the number of individuals in various age groups. A person’s age has an effect on his or her requirements, purchases, and ability to function.

In general, individuals in India were categorised into the following three age categories. These include the following:

Children (Generally below 15 years): They are economically inactive and need food, clothes, education, and health care. This group accounted for 34.4 per cent of the population in 2001.

Working Age (15-59 years): They reproduce economically and physiologically. They make up the labour force. This effect analysis for 58.7 per cent of the population in 2001.

Aged (Above 59 years): They may be economically productive even after retirement. They may be volunteering, but they are not accessible for recruiting.

This group accounted for 6.9 per cent of the population in 2001.

Occupational Structure

The occupational structure is a term that refers to the distribution of the population by employment type. Generally, professions are classified as main, secondary, or tertiary.

  • Primary occupation: Primary professions are those that involve the extraction of natural resources from the Earth. Agriculture, fisheries, forestry, mining, and quarrying are only a few examples.
  • Secondary occupation: Secondary professions are those that involve the transformation of extracted natural resources into useful products. Among them are manufacturing, refining, and construction.
  • Tertiary occupation: Tertiary professions are those that provide services to primary and secondary occupations. Transportation, communications, commerce, administration, and legal services are just a few examples.

Literacy Rate

  1. The overall proportion of an area’s population aged seven years or older who can read and write with understanding is referred to as the literacy rate.
  2. Although literacy rates have steadily increased throughout the nation, rural literacy falls significantly behind urban literacy, and female literacy lags much behind male literacy.
  3. According to the 2011 Census, the country’s literacy rate is 73%. Female literacy rates are 64.6 per cent, whereas male literacy rates are 80.9 per cent.


  1. Life expectancy at birth has increased from 36. 7 years in 1951 to 64.7 years in 2011 as a result of continuous government initiatives and healthcare programmes.
  2. The mortality rate has decreased from 25 deaths per 1000 people in 1951 to 7.2 deaths per 1000 persons in 2011.
  3. However, healthcare and nutrition continue to be significant problems. Malnutrition affects a significant proportion of the population’s children.
  4. Safe drinking water and sanitary conditions are significant issues in rural communities and need immediate attention. Only one-third of rural residents have access to these basic necessities.
  5. Nutritional status and per capita calorie intake are far below recommended levels. This may be addressed via a population policy that is effective.

The Pattern Of Working Population

  1. In developed and developing nations, the percentage of individuals engaged in various activities varies.
  2. The developing world’s population is more concentrated in primary professions, while the developed world’s population is more concentrated in secondary and tertiary occupations.
  3. In India, agriculture alone employs half of the population. However, industrialization and urbanisation have resulted in a major shift away from secondary and tertiary professions, which formerly accounted for about 13% and 20% of employment, respectively.

Adolescent Population

  1. The adolescent population ranges in age from ten to nineteen years. They account for about 20% of India’s population.
  2. Adolescents need more nourishment, yet the food provided to them in our nation is insufficient.
  3. Numerous teenage females are anaemic. Adolescents must be aware of the importance of improved education, health, and other factors.

NCERT questions & answers from Population

Question 1.

Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below.

(i) Migrations change the number, distribution and composition of the population in:

(a) the area of departure

(b) the area of arrival

(c) both the area of departure and arrival

(d) none of the above

Ans: (c) both the area of departure and arrival

(ii) A large proportion of children in a population is a result of:

(a) high birth rates

(b) high life expectancies

(c) high death rates

(d) more married couples

Ans: (a) high birth rates

(iii) The magnitude of population growth refers to

(a) the total population of an area

(b) the number of persons added each year

(c) the rate at which the population increases

(d) the number of females per thousand males

Ans: (b) the number of persons added each year

(iv) According to the Census, a “literate” person is one who

(a) can read and write his/her name

(b) can read and write any language

(c) is 7 years old and can read and write any language with understanding

(d) knows the 3 R’s (reading, writing, arithmetic)

Ans: (c) is 7 years old and can read and write any language with understanding.

Question 2.

(i) Why is the rate of population growth in India declining since 1981?

Answer: Since 1981, population growth has been steadily declining as a result of falling birth rates. This occurred as a result of birth control efforts.

(ii) Discuss the major components of population growth.

Answer: The following are the primary components of population growth:

  • The birth rate is defined as the number of live births per thousand people in a given year. Due to India’s historically higher birth rates than death rates, it is a significant contributor to growth.
  • The death rate is defined as the number of people who die each year per thousand. The primary reason for the rapid growth of the population has been the remarkable decline in death rates.
  • Migration is the term used to describe the movement of people across areas and borders. Both domestic and international migration are possible.

(iii) Define age structure, death rate and birth rate.

Answer: The age structure of a country refers to the proportion of people in various age groups. The population of a country is classified into three groups.:

  • Children (below 15 years)
  • Adults/working population (15-59 years)
  • Aged (above 60 years)

The death rate is defined as the number of deaths per thousand people in a given year.

The birth rate is defined as the number of births per thousand people in a given year.

(iv) How is migration a determinant factor of population change?

Answer: Migration is the movement of people between areas and countries.

It alters not only the population size of urban and rural populations but also their age and gender composition. In India, rural-urban migration has resulted in a steady increase in the percentage of people who live in cities and towns.

As a result, migration has a significant effect on the composition and dispersion of populations.

Question 3.

Distinguish between population growth and population change.


Population Growth :

  • Population growth is the term used to describe the increase or decrease in the population of a country over time.
  • It indicates the population’s growth or decline.

Population Change:

  • It is concerned with population changes brought about by births, deaths, and migration.
  • It demonstrates the evolution of the population in terms of age, gender composition, and dispersion.

Question 4.

What is the relation between occupational structure and development?

Answer: The occupational structure, classified as primary, secondary, and tertiary, refers to the distribution of the population by occupation type. Construction and building are primary activities; transportation, communication, commerce, and administration are secondary.

The proportion of people engaged in various activities varies between developed and developing countries. Secondary and tertiary education graduates are widely valued after in developed countries. In developing countries, the proportion of the workforce engaged in primary activities is higher. Due to India’s increasing industrialization and urbanisation, a shift toward secondary and tertiary industries has occurred.

Question 5.

What are the advantages of having a healthy population?

Answer: The following are some of the advantages of having a healthy population.

  • A healthy population can contribute to the welfare and well-being of a society, as well as to the process of national development.
  • A healthy population possesses a healthy mind, which enables them to be accountable and contribute to resource development.

Question 6.

What are the significant features of the National Population Policy 2000?

Answer: The following are the primary characteristics of India’s National Population Policy:

  • The objective is to enhance the quality of life for individuals. The Family Planning Program and family welfare programmes have been implemented to promote the health and welfare of the population.
  • This strategy ensures that all children receive free and compulsory education until the age of 14, as well as a reduction in primary and secondary school dropout rates.
  • It is critical to prevent child marriages.
  • Disease prevention and control, as well as universal vaccination against all vaccine-preventable diseases.
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