NCERT Notes for Class 9 Social Science Chapter 3 Electoral Politics You will learn how representatives are elected in Chapter 3 of Class 9 Civics. The chapter opens by discussing why elections are required and beneficial in a democratic society. Then it demonstrates how the electoral rivalry between parties benefits the public. The fundamental concept that this chapter seeks to explain is the distinction between democratic and non-democratic elections. Therefore, read CBSE Notes Class 9 Political Science Topic 3 on Electoral Politics thoroughly to have a firm grasp on this chapter.

CBSE Class 9 Social Science notes will assist students in studying the topic thoroughly and clearly. These CBSE Class 9 Social Science notes were written by subject experts who made the study material very basic, both in terms of language and format.

Introduction

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Elections

The election is the method or technique by which people elect their representatives on a regular basis.

Need Of Elections

Elections are necessary for the selection of representatives. In the majority of democracies, citizens govern themselves via their representatives.

Elections are necessary for representative democracy to function because

  1. They address the issue of evaluating individuals on the basis of their education, expertise, and experience.
  2. They aid in determining whether or not the public approves of their politicians.
  3. They guarantee that representatives govern in accordance with the desires of the people and that those who are not working for the people are removed from office.
  4. They have a say in who makes their laws.
  5. They have the ability to elect the government and make important policy choices.
  6. They may vote for the political party whose policies will lead the government and legislative process.

Procedure Of Elections

The following real-world example of the Haryana Assembly elections clarifies the election process.

  • Formation Of New Party ‘lok Dal’: Since 1982, Haryana has been governed by the Congress party. Chaudhary Devi Lal was an opposition politician at the time. He spearheaded the Nyaya Yudh (justice fight) movement and founded the ‘Lok Dal’ party.
  • Voters Favoured Lok Dal : People were dissatisfied with the current administration and were drawn to Devi Lal’s promise. They voted for Lok Dal, which won 76 of the 90 seats.
  • Election Campaign Of Devi Lal : Devi Lal told people during the 1987 Assembly Election campaign that if his party won, he would forgive debts to farmers and small businesses.
  • Results Announced : Lok Dal gained 60 seats on its own, securing a resounding majority in the Assembly. Congress received just five seats. As soon as the election results were revealed, Congress’s incumbent Chief Minister resigned.
  • Devi Lal Became Chief Minister : Lok Dal’s freshly elected Legislative Assembly Members (MLAs) selected Devi Lal as its leader. Devi Lal was asked to become the next Chief Minister by the Governor.

He took the oath of office three days after the election result was announced. Then, by executive order, his administration waived outstanding debts to small farmers, agricultural labourers, and small businesses.

Congress Again Forms Government : For four years, the Lok Dal controlled the state. In the 1991 election, the party had little support from the public. Congress won the election and established the government this time.

What Makes An Election Democratic?

A succinct summary of the basic requirements for a democratic election

  1. It is something that everyone should have. the authority to appoint a representative. This implies that each person gets one vote, and each vote has equal weight.
  2. Political parties and candidates should be free to run for office and provide voters with genuine options
  3. Elections after a certain time should be used to provide options at regular intervals.
  4. Only the candidate favored by the majority of the electorate shall be elected.
  5. Elections are conducted in a free and fair manner, allowing voters to elect the representatives they really want.

Political Competition

Elections are a contest. Political rivalry occurs when various political parties vie for the people’s trust and vote. They make promises and provide incentives to people in order to persuade them to vote for them.

This election contest features a number of flaws, including

  1. It fosters division, factionalism (Groupism), and party politics in every neighbourhood.
  2. Different political parties and individuals often win elections via dirty tactics such as booth capturing.
  3. The drive to win political battles precludes the formulation of viable long-term policy.
  4. The notion of being pulled into unhealthy rivalry arises as a result of the competition. That is why decent people abstain from entering and participating in political competitions. Additionally, electoral rivalry has certain advantages, such as
  5. Regular election rivalry benefits political parties and their leaders. They will be able to win again if they can please the voters with their efforts.
  6. Even if a political party is driven only by the ambition to rule, it will be compelled to serve the people.
  7. It elucidates the true motivations of political parties.
  8. It provides voters with options from which to select the best.

System Of Elections In India

  1. Elections to the Lok Sabha and Vidhan Sabha (Assembly) are conducted every five years in India.
  2. All elected members’ terms expire after five years.
  3. Elections are conducted simultaneously in all constituencies, either on the same day or within a few days. This is referred to as the General Election.
  4. Occasionally, elections are conducted for a single constituency in order to fill a vacancy created by the death or resignation of a member. This is referred to as a by-election.

Electoral Constituencies

  1. In India, an area-based system of representation is used, in which the nation is split into several electoral districts.
  2. This is referred to as Electoral Constituencies. Each voter in a district elects one representative.
  3. In India, an area-based system of representation is used, in which the nation is split into several electoral districts.
  4. This is referred to as Electoral Constituencies. Each voter in a district elects one representative.
  5. Each parliamentary seat is divided into numerous assembly constituencies. For Panchayat and Municipal elections, the same concept applies.
  6. Each village or town is split into several wards, which function similarly to constituencies.

Reserved Constituencies

To guarantee that all segments of society are represented, our forefathers established reserved constituencies.

Reservation In Lok Sabha/District/Local Level : A few Lok Sabha seats are reserved for members of Scheduled Castes (SCs) and Scheduled Tribes (STs) (STs).

  • This figure is proportional to their population share. In 2012, 84 seats were allocated for SCs and 47 places for STs (in Lok Sabha).
  • Thus, the allocated seats for SC and ST do not deprive any other socioeconomic group of its rightful portion.
  • Later, this system of reservation was expanded to include additional marginalised groups at the district and municipal levels.
  • Seats in rural (panchayat) and urban (municipalities and corporations) local government bodies are now reserved for members of the Other Backward Classes (OBC).
  • However, the percentage of reserved seats varies per state. Similarly, one-third of rural and urban local government seats are allocated for female candidates.

Reservation For SC And ST : Certain seats are allocated for members of the Scheduled Castes (SC) and Scheduled Tribes (ST) (ST).

Only members of the SCs are eligible to run in a SC reserved constituency. Similarly, only members of the STs are eligible to run for office in a district designated for them.

Nomination Of Candidates

Anyone who is a voter may also run for office. The main distinction is that the minimum age to vote is 18 years, while the minimum age to run for office is 25 years. Additionally, there are certain additional limitations on offenders, although they apply only in the most severe circumstances.

Political parties nominate candidates who get the support and symbol of the party.

The term “Party Ticket” is often used to refer to a party’s candidate. The applicant must complete a nomination form and provide a security deposit.

Additionally, each candidate must file a legal statement disclosing all relevant information.

  1. The candidate’s educational background
  2. Details about the candidate’s and his/her family’s holdings and liabilities;
  3. Serious criminal charges against the candidate are pending.

The facts must be made available in order for voters to make an informed choice.

Educational Qualifications For Candidates

  1. There are no educational requirements for candidates to be a Member of Parliament or a Member of the Legislative Assembly. However, the most critical quality for candidates is the capacity to comprehend the worries and difficulties of others and to represent their interests.
  2. Adding an educational requirement would be against democracy’s ethos since it would deprive a majority of people of their right to vote

Voters’ List

  1. In a democratic election, the list of voters is produced well in advance of the election and distributed to everyone.
  2. This list is formally referred to as the Electoral Roll but is more frequently referred to as the Voters’ List. The right to vote is included in the concept of the Universal Adult Franchise.
  3. This implies that all citizens aged 18 and above are eligible to vote in elections regardless of their caste, religion, or gender.
  4. The government is responsible for ensuring that the names of all eligible voters are included on the voters’ list.
  5. As new voters reach voting age, their names are added to the voter’s list, while those who move out of a particular area or who die are removed.
  6. Every five years, the list is completely revised. This is done to keep it current.

Election Photo Identity Card (Epic)

In recent years, a new Election Photo Identity Card (EPIC) system has been implemented. The card is not required to vote, and voters may use any other form of identification, such as a ration card, driver’s licence, or Adhar Card.

Election Campaign

  1. Election campaign refers to the promotion (or propaganda) of the candidates’ ideas, proposals, and promises to voters that they would keep if elected.
  2. This manner, people may choose their preferred candidate. They cast their ballots for the candidate whose policies they support.
  3. In our nation, election campaigning lasts two weeks from the publication of the final candidate list until the day of voting.
  4. Candidates communicate with their voters, political leaders, address election gatherings, and political parties mobilise their followers during this time period.
  5. Additionally, this is the time of year when print media and television news are saturated with election-related articles and discussions. Election manifestos are prepared by political parties.
  6. Political parties attempt to concentrate public attention on a few major topics during election campaigns. They aim to draw the public’s attention to that problem and convince people to vote for their party.

Slogans Given By Different Political Parties

The following are some of the most effective slogans used by various political parties during various elections.

  1. In the 1971 Lok Sabha elections, the Congress party headed by Indira Gandhi campaigned on the slogan ‘Garibi Hatao’ (Eradicate poverty). The party pledged to refocus all of the government’s programmes in order to eradicate poverty from the nation.
  2. ‘Preserve Democracy’ was the slogan used by the Janata Party during the 1977 Lok Sabha election. The party pledged to reverse the Emergency’s abuses and restore civil rights.
  3. ‘The Left Front campaigned on the slogan ‘Land to the Tiller’ during the 1977 West Bengal Assembly elections.
  4. ‘Protect the Telugu People’s Self-Respect’ was the slogan adopted by N.T. Rama Rao, leader of the Telugu Desam Party, during the 1983 Andhra Pradesh Assembly elections.
  5. ‘Achhe din aane waale hain’ (‘Better days are on their way’) was the slogan of the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) during the 2014 Indian general election.

Code Of Conduct And Laws

There are many election laws in place to govern election campaigns.

No party or candidate is permitted to violate these laws.

  1. votes with bribes or threats
  2. make an appeal to them on the basis of their caste or religion
  3. electoral campaign using government resources
  4. Spend more than Rs. 25 lakh in a Lok Sabha seat or Rs. 10 lakh in an Assembly election constituency.

If a party or candidate is discovered to be engaging in any of the following, their candidacy may be withdrawn by the court even if they have won the election.

Along with the legislation, all of our country’s political parties have agreed to a Model code of behaviour for election campaigns.

As a result,

  1. No political party or candidate may utilise a house of worship for electioneering purposes.
  2. No candidate may campaign using government cars, planes, or officials.
  3. Once elections are declared, ministers are prohibited from laying the groundwork for any project, making major policy decisions, or making any commitment to provide public amenities.

Polling

  1. Election day refers to the day on which voters cast or ‘poll’ their vote. Each voter whose name appears on the voter registration list may visit a nearby polling station and cast his or her vote using a secret ballot.
  2. Once inside the booth, the election official will identify the voter, place a mark on his or her finger, and enable the voter to cast his or her vote.
  3. Each candidate is permitted to have an agent sit inside the polling booth to verify that voting is conducted fairly.
  4. Previously, voting was accomplished by stamping the ballot paper. A ballot paper is a piece of paper that contains the names of the competing candidates, as well as the party’s name and insignia.
  5. Votes are now recorded using Electronic Voting Machines (EYMs). Wherever the voter clicks the button next to the name of his or her candidate, he or she wishes to vote.

Counting Of Votes

After polling is completed, all EVMs are sealed and transported to a safe location. Several days later, on a predetermined day, all EVMs are unlocked and the votes cast for each candidate are tallied. The candidate receiving the most votes in a constituency is declared elected.

What Makes Elections In India Democratic?

Numerous variables contribute to the democratic nature of Indian elections. Among these characteristics are an independent Election Commission, public involvement, and acceptance of the election result.

Independent Election Commission

  1. Elections are handled in our nation by an impartial and very strong Election Commission (EC). It has the same degree of autonomy as the judiciary.
  2. The President of India appoints the Chief Election Commissioner (CEC). Once chosen, the CEC is not accountable to anybody, even the President or the government.

Powers Of Election Commission

  1. It makes decisions on all facets of election administration and management.
  2. It is responsible for enforcing the code of conduct and penalising any candidate or political party that breaches it.
  3. During the election season, the Election Commission has the authority to compel the government to adhere to certain rules in order to prevent the government from abusing or misusing its power in order to increase its prospects of winning elections, or to remove certain government officials.
  4. Government personnel assigned to election duty report to the Election Commission, not the government.
  5. If election authorities determine that polling in certain booths or perhaps an entire constituency was not fair, they request a recount.

Acceptance Of Election Outcome

Without free and fair elections, the strong always win. The governing parties do not suffer electoral defeats under such circumstances. Generally, the losing party rejects the result of a manipulated election.

  1. In India, governing parties regularly lose national and state elections.
  2. In the United States, an incumbent or current member of Congress seldom loses an election. However, in India, about half of incumbent Members of Parliament or Members of Legislative Assembly lose elections.
  3. Candidates who are reported to have spent a large sum of money on vote buying and those with a history of criminal activity often lose elections.
  4. With the exception of a few contentious elections, defeated parties generally accept electoral results as the ‘people’s decision’.

Popular Participation

People will not vote if the election process is not free and fair. Participate in the exercise indefinitely. Generally, voter participation in elections is quantified.

Figures about turnout. Turnout refers to the percentage of eligible voters.

people who exercised their right to vote. India has a larger population. voter participation among the poor and uneducated in comparison to Democracies occidentales.

Challenges To Free And Fair Elections

The following are the obstacles to free and fair elections.

  1. While wealthy politicians and parties cannot guarantee victory, they do have an unfair edge over smaller parties and independent candidates.
  2. Due to their political connections, some candidates with criminal histories are able to get party tickets from major political parties.
  3. Certain families have a propensity to control political parties; dynastic dominance is very frequent.
  4. Elections provide regular people with little option. All of the main parties have policies and practises that are very similar to one another.
  5. Smaller parties and independent candidates have a significant financial and organisational disadvantage when compared to larger organisations.

These difficulties do not exist just in India, but also in a number of established democracies. This is an issue that should worry everyone who believes in democracy.

Outro

NCERT questions & answers from Chemical Reactions and Equations

Question 1.

If you are elected as the President of India which of the following decision can you take on your own?
(a) Select the person you like as Prime Minister.
(b) Dismiss a Prime Minister who has a majority in the Lok Sabha.
(c) Ask for reconsideration of a bill passed by both the Houses.
(d) Nominate the leaders of your choice to the Council of Ministers.

Answer: (c) Ask for reconsideration of a bill passed by both the Houses.

Question 2.

Who among the following is a part of the political executive?
(a) District Collector
(b) Secretary of the Ministry of Home Affairs.
(c) Home Minister
(d) Director General of Police

Answer: (c) Home Minister

Question 1.

If you are elected as the President of India which of the following decision can you take on your own?
(a) Select the person you like as Prime Minister.
(b) Dismiss a Prime Minister who has a majority in the Lok Sabha.
(c) Ask for reconsideration of a bill passed by both the Houses.
(d) Nominate the leaders of your choice to the Council of Ministers.

Answer: (c) Ask for reconsideration of a bill passed by both the Houses.

Question 6.

Of all the institutions we have studied in this chapter, name the one that exercises the powers on each of the following matters.
(a) Decision on allocation of money for developing infrastructure like roads, irrigation etc. and different welfare activities for the citizens
(b) Considers the recommendation of a Committee on a law to regulate the stock exchange
(c) Decides on a legal dispute between two state governments
(d) Implements the decision to provide relief for the victims of an earthquake

Answer:

(a) The prime minister and the Council of Minister

(b) The Parliament

(c) Supreme Court of India

(d) The Civil Servants working together.

Question 7.

Why is the Prime Minister in India not directly elected by the people? Choose the most appropriate answer and give reasons for your choice.
(a) In a Parliamentary democracy only the leader of the majority party in the Lok Sabha can become the Prime Minister.
(b) Lok Sabha can remove the Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers even before the expiry of their term.
(c) Since the Prime Minister is appointed by the President there is no need for it.
(d) Direct election of the Prime Minister will involve a lot of expenditure on elections.

Answer: (a) Elections are not contested for the Prime Minister’s position. Only parties contest elections, and the head of the dominant party becomes Prime Minister. In a Parliamentary democracy, the Prime Ministership is reserved for the leader of the majority party in the Lok Sabha.

Question 8.

A teacher was making preparations for a mock Parliament. She called two students to act as leaders of two political parties. She gave them an option: Each one could choose to have a majority either in the mock Lok Sabha or in the mock Rajya Sabha. If this choice was given to you, which one would you choose and why?

Answer: These are just amusement flicks, while actual life is much different. In a democracy, governance entails bringing everyone along. Additionally, it is quite difficult to examine merely an individual’s choice in a big and varied nation like India. Additionally, decision-making must be coordinated throughout the government’s many institutions.

Question 9.

After reading the example of the reservation order, three students had different reactions about the role of the judiciary. Which view, according to you, is a correct reading of the role of the judiciary?
(a) Srinivas argues that since the Supreme Court agreed with the government, it is not independent.
(b) Anjaiah says that the judiciary is independent because it could have given a verdict against the government order. The Supreme Court did direct the government to modify it.
(c) Vijaya thinks that the judiciary is neither independent nor conformist, but acts as a mediator between opposing parties. The court struck a good balance between those who supported and those who opposed the order.

Answer: Anjaiah’s assessment of the judiciary’s function is right, since the judiciary is both independent and impartial. It is not subject to legislative or executive authority. The judges do not act on the government’s instruction or in accordance with the desires of the ruling party.

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