Chapter 2: Social Change and Social Order in Rural and Urban Society – CBSE NCERT Sociology Class 11 Notes

Class 11 Sociology Notes for Chapter 2: Social Change and Social Order in Rural and Urban Society
Get Class 11 Sociology Notes, Questions and Practice Papers for Chapter 2: Social Change and Social Order in Rural and Urban Society. Candidates who want to pass Class 11 with a good grade can use this article for Notes, Questions, and Practice Papers. We have provided a link below to access the Class 11 Sociology Notes, Important Questions and Practice Paper on the topic Sociology and Society. You can practise the questions and check your answers using the solutions provided after each question.


Chapter Definitions and Short Notes

Chapter 2: Social Change and Social Order in Rural and Urban Society – Short Notes and Definitions

Understanding Social Change

Social change refers to the continuous and rapid transformations occurring within societies. It is the fundamental principle that asserts that change is the only constant feature of human civilization. Sociology emerged as a discipline to comprehend the swift social transitions observed in Western Europe. Over the last 400 years, human civilization has witnessed an unprecedented acceleration in social change, particularly in the last century.

Short Pointers:

  • Social change is the constant and rapid transformation within societies.
  • Sociology emerged to understand the rapid changes in Western European society.
  • Human civilization has experienced accelerated social change over the past 400 years.
  • The pace of change has notably quickened in the last century, especially in the past 100 years.
  • Change has been faster in the last fifty years compared to previous periods.
  • Within the last twenty years, the world may have changed more than in the first thirty.

Defining Social Change

Social change involves significant transformations that fundamentally alter the underlying structure of a society over time. This term captures changes that are both intensive and extensive, affecting large sectors of society deeply. Social change is a broad concept, refined by sociologists to focus on major shifts that have a profound impact on social structures, rather than minor or isolated changes. The impact of social change is measured by its depth and the scale of its influence across society.

Short Pointers:

  • Social change refers to significant transformations within society.
  • It alters the fundamental structure of a society over time.
  • Changes must be both intensive (deep) and extensive (wide) to count as social change.
  • Social change is considered on how much it changes and how many people it affects.
  • Sociologists limit the broad meaning to make the term useful for social theory.
  • The term is often refined by examining the causes, nature, impact, and speed of the change.

Types of Social Change Based on Pace or Speed

Social change can be classified into two types based on its pace or speed: evolutionary and revolutionary changes. Evolutionary changes occur gradually over a long period, adapting slowly to natural or social conditions. This concept is derived from Charles Darwin’s theory of natural selection, later applied to societal changes in the form of Social Darwinism. Revolutionary changes, on the other hand, happen quickly or suddenly, leading to sharp, complete transformations in society.
Examples of revolutionary change include the French Revolution, the Russian Revolution, the Industrial Revolution, and the Telecommunication Revolution.

Short Pointers:

  • Social changes are of two types based on pace: evolutionary and revolutionary.
  • Evolutionary changes: slow, gradual adaptations over a long time.
  • Revolutionary changes: quick, sudden transformations.
  • Darwin’s theory of natural selection inspired the concept of Social Darwinism for evolutionary changes.
  • Examples of revolutionary changes: French Revolution, Russian Revolution, Industrial Revolution.

Example: Examples include the French Revolution (1789-1793), the Russian Revolution of 1917, the Industrial Revolution, and the Telecommunication Revolution.

Types of Social Change Based on Nature or Impact

Social changes based on their nature or impact are primarily of two types: structural changes and changes in values and beliefs. Structural changes refer to major transformations in the societal structure, its institutions, or the rules governing them. For instance, the shift from metal coins to paper money significantly altered the financial systems, moving from intrinsic to representative value.
Changes in values and beliefs, on the other hand, influence social norms and behaviours, such as the evolving perceptions of childhood from viewing children as small adults to recognising childhood as a distinct and protected phase of life, leading to laws against child labour and in favour of compulsory education.

Example: An example of structural change is the transition from gold and silver coins to paper money, which fundamentally changed how financial markets and transactions operate. An example of changes in values and beliefs is the shift in societal views on childhood, leading to laws against child labour and compulsory education.

Short Pointers:

  • There are two primary types of social changes: structural changes and changes in values and beliefs.
  • Structural changes affect the fundamental structure of society and its institutions.
  • Example of structural change: shift from gold and silver coins to paper money.
  • Changes in values and beliefs alter social norms and behaviours.
  • Example of change in values and beliefs: evolving perceptions of childhood, resulting in new laws against child labour and for compulsory education.
  • These changes can have extensive and long-lasting impacts on society.

Types of Social Change Based on Causes or Sources

Social change can be classified based on its causes or sources, which are typically divided into internal (endogenous) and external (exogenous) types. Internal causes originate within a society, such as cultural shifts or political developments, while external causes come from outside, like environmental changes or technological advancements.
There are five broad categories of sources that can lead to social change: environmental, technological, economic, political, and cultural.

Short Pointers:

  • Social change classified by causes: internal (endogenous) or external (exogenous).
  • Internal causes arise from within society (e.g., political reforms, cultural shifts).
  • External causes originate outside society (e.g., technological innovations, environmental factors).
  • Five main categories of causes/sources: environmental, technological, economic, political, cultural.
  • Understanding the source of social change helps in analysing its impact and direction.
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Social Order and Change in Rural Areas

Social order and social change in rural areas are distinctly influenced by the village’s size, economic base, and traditional social structures. Villages are characterised by small populations that promote more personalised relationships and stronger adherence to traditional social practices such as caste and religion. These conditions foster a social order where the dominant social groups exert significant control over resources and societal norms, limiting dissent and change. Change in rural areas is slow due to geographical isolation and dependency on agriculture, making technological and agricultural changes (like land reforms) impactful on the social structure.

Example: The first phase of land reforms in India after independence, which transferred land from absentee landlords to those managing the land, significantly impacted rural social structures. This shift increased the social status and political power of intermediate castes, known as ‘dominant castes,’ reshaping rural politics and social dynamics.

Short Pointers:

  • Personalised Relationships: Small village size leads to personal connections and familiarity among all residents.
  • Dominance of Traditional Structures: Caste, religion, and other traditional practices strongly influence the social order.
  • Control by Dominant Groups: Dominant groups in villages control resources and enforce social norms, stifling dissent.
  • Slow Change: Geographical isolation and economic dependence on agriculture slow down the pace of social change.
  • Impact of Communication: Advances in communication technology and transportation have started to reduce the cultural lag between rural and urban areas.
  • Significant Reforms: Land reforms and technological advancements in agriculture can drastically alter social and economic relations in rural areas.
  • Examples of Upheaval: Changes in social order can lead to significant upheavals, as seen with the rise of dominant castes and subsequent challenges from lower castes in states like Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, and Tamil Nadu.

Social Order and Change in Urban Areas

Urban areas, historically pivotal for trade, military strategy, and religion, have evolved into centres of modernity and urbanism, impacting social order and change significantly. Urbanism promotes individuality and offers vast opportunities, though often only to a privileged few. Cities are characterised by high population density, requiring effective management of space and resources. Urban social order involves managing housing, transportation, and public services, which present complex challenges due to the diverse urban population. Urban change is deeply influenced by spatial dynamics, including the rise and fall of city centres and neighbourhoods, and the shifting patterns of residential and commercial areas.

Short Pointers:

  • Historical Importance: Cities originated at strategic locations for trade, military, and religious purposes.
  • Urbanism as Modern Phenomenon: Modern cities support large populations and foster individuality but often privilege a minority with true freedom and opportunities.
  • Social Order Challenges: Urban areas face complex issues like housing shortages, which lead to homelessness and slum development, and the need for effective public transportation systems.
  • Spatial Management: The necessity to manage residential, public, and industrial zones alongside infrastructure for transportation and public safety.
  • Community and Identity: Cities intensify group identities, which are crucial for survival, resistance, and assertion in dense urban settings.
  • Gentrification: Refers to transforming lower-class neighbourhoods into more affluent ones, affecting social dynamics and property values.
  • Transportation’s Role: Changes in public transport systems can significantly influence the urban social fabric and quality of life.

Continuous Population Growth: Urban areas constantly adapt to increases in population due to natural growth and migration, impacting social order and necessitating ongoing urban planning and development.


NCERT Solutions

NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Sociology – Chapter 2: Social Change and Social Order in Rural and Urban Society

Would you agree with the statement that rapid social change is a comparatively new phenomenon in human history? Give reasons for your answer.

Answer: Yes, I agree with the statement that rapid social change is a comparatively new phenomenon in human history. Even though human beings have existed on Earth for around 500,000 years, we have had a civilised existence for only about 6,000 years. And rapid, constant change has occurred only in the last 400 years, with the pace accelerating greatly in just the past 100 years.

Several factors in modern times have led to much faster social change compared to the past. Exposure to urbanisation and globalisation has transformed communities and ways of life. Political turbulence and the development of political consciousness among people has triggered major shifts. The spread of education has made people more aware of discrimination and oppression in stratified societies.  As a result, communities are coming forward to overthrow old, regressive social structures and institutions.

The speed of change has been increasing steadily, with change happening faster in recent decades than ever before in history. While change occurred slowly over long periods in the ancient past, it has become remarkably rapid today due to the forces of modern society. This makes rapid social change a relatively new development when seen in the context of the entire span of human history.

Mindmap to remember this answer:

  • Humans existed 500,000 years, but civilised only last 6,000 years
  • Rapid constant change only in last 400 years
  • Change accelerated greatly in last 100 years
  • Factors speeding up change in modern times:
    • Urbanisation and globalisation transformed society
    • Political turbulence and consciousness
    • Education spread awareness of social inequalities
  • Led to overturning of old regressive structures
  • Speed of change increasing, recent decades faster than ever before
  • Ancient past had slow change, modern society enables rapid change
  • Rapid social change new compared to entire human history timespan

How is social change to be distinguished from other kinds of change?

Answer: Social change is different from other kinds of change because it refers to significant transformations that fundamentally alter the underlying structure of society over time. While social change is a very broad and general term that can encompass various types of changes, not all changes qualify as social change.

To be considered social change, the changes must be big in terms of both how much they impact society and how widely they affect different parts of society. The changes have to be intensive, bringing a major shift, as well as extensive, impacting a large section of society. Changes that are small in scale or limited in scope would not be called social change.

Social change is also distinct because it is connected to multiple levels and aspects of society, including both formal and informal social structures like class, caste, race, etc. It involves a complex mix of different political, economic, cultural and other factors that together affect the basic order and foundations of society. This multidimensional nature sets social change apart from other, narrower forms of change.

Mindmap to remember this answer:

  • Social change vs other types of change
      • Refers to significant, fundamental transformations
      • Alters underlying structure of society over time
  • Social change very broad term
      • Can include various types of changes
      • But not all changes qualify as social change
  • To be social change:
      • Changes must be big – intensive and extensive
      • Major impact + affect large section of society
      • Small scale/limited scope changes don’t count
  • Social change is distinct:
    • Connects to multiple levels of society
    • Formal + informal structures (class, caste, race)
    • Complex mix of political, economic, cultural factors
    • Affects foundations and basic order of society
    • Multidimensional nature is key difference

What do you understand by ‘structural change’? Explain with examples other than those in the text.

Answer: Structural change involves major changes to the rules and institutions that govern society. Beyond minor changes, it fundamentally changes society.

Universal adult franchise, the right to vote for all adult citizens regardless of property ownership or education, was a major structural change in modern democracies. It changed politics by empowering citizens and holding governments accountable. Before this, only a few were politically powerful.

India abolished zamindari after independence. This structural change ended feudal land ownership and gave tillers and farmers land rights. It altered the centuries-old British agrarian system.

A third example is the 1969 Indian government nationalisation of major banks. Public ownership of the financial sector allowed the government to direct credit to priority sectors. A major economic restructuring occurred.

In conclusion, structural changes change the foundations of social, political, and economic organisation, unlike minor changes. Turning points change society.

Mindmap to remember this answer:

    • Definition: Major transformation in underlying rules & institutions of society
    • Goes beyond minor changes
    • Fundamentally alters social structure
  • Examples:
    • Universal adult franchise – political structural change,
      empowered people
    • Abolishing zamindari system – agrarian structural change,
      land to tillers
    • Bank nationalisation – economic structural change,
      public ownership
  • Contrasted with minor changes within existing structure
  • Turning points taking society in new direction

Describe some kinds of environment-related social change.

Answer: The natural environment can change society in several ways:

A natural disaster like earthquakes, floods, volcanic eruptions, or tsunamis is one way. These sudden disasters can completely change the social structure of affected regions. The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami changed the social fabric of many coastal villages in Tamil Nadu, Andaman Islands, Sri Lanka, and Indonesia. People lost jobs, homes, and families. The changes were so great that many people could not return to pre-tsunami society.

Finding oil or minerals in a region is another way. This can cause major social changes. In the 20th century, oil was discovered in Middle Eastern deserts, transforming those societies from poverty to prosperity. In the 19th century, the California Gold Rush attracted hordes of migrants seeking wealth, changing western USA society.

Climate and geography also shape societies. Desert dwellers and cold-weather residents used to organise their social lives around harsh environments. Adapting to harsh physical conditions shaped their food, clothing, livelihoods, and social interactions.

In conclusion, the natural environment can change social life, sometimes gradually but often dramatically. It drives social change.

Mindmap to remember this answer:

  • Environment shapes society
  • Modes of social change:
  • Natural disasters – sudden, drastic impact
    • 2004 tsunami example
    • Permanent changes
  • Discovery of resources – oil, gold
    • Middle East & California examples
    • Poverty to prosperity
  • Climate & geography
    • Desert, cold regions
    • Food, clothing, livelihoods, social interactions
  • Powerful factor
  • Transforms foundations of social life
  • Gradual or sudden & dramatic
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What are some of the challenges to social order in urban areas?

Answer: Urban areas face many complex challenges to social order, most of which are related to the lack of sufficient space. One major issue is the difficulty in ensuring the spatial viability of the city given the high population density. This involves providing adequate housing, transportation, basic services, and maintaining separation of residential, commercial and industrial zones. Managing all of this is a huge challenge that is made even tougher by the social divisions and inequalities in cities.
Another problem is the segregation and communal tensions that often exist in urban residential areas. Different religious or ethnic groups may be concentrated in particular neighbourhoods, sometimes leading to riots or violence.
The patterns of housing in a city are also intricately linked to its economy and the daily life of residents. If residential areas are far from workplaces, elaborate transportation is needed and commuting becomes a central feature of life. Reliance on private vehicles leads to traffic and pollution. Lack of affordable housing forces the poor into slums and homelessness.
So in summary, the immense complexity involved in organising urban space and the ever-present possibility of social conflict pose constant challenges to maintaining order in cities. Careful planning and governance are essential to tackle these issues.

Mindmap to remember this answer:

  • Space constraints
    • High population density
    • Challenge of spatial viability
      • Housing
      • Transportation
      • Zoning of areas
      • Basic services
    • Complicated by social divisions
  • Residential segregation
    • Concentration of groups
    • Risk of communal tensions/violence
  • Housing & economy links
    • Distance of homes from work
    • Transportation needs
    • Commuting central to life
    • Traffic & pollution from private vehicles
    • Slums & homelessness from shortages
  • Overall challenges
    • Complexity of organising space
    • Constant risk of social conflict
    • Need for planning & governance


MCQ Questions

Chapter 2: Social Change and Social Order in Rural and Urban Society – MCQ Questions

The new spinning and weaving machines destroyed the _________ industry of the Indian subcontinent with technological innovations in the textile industry in Britain.

(a) Transport(b) Handloom
(c) Silk(d) Cotton

Answer: (b) Handloom

__________ refers to landowning intermediate castes that are numerically large in number and thus enjoy political dominance in a given region.

(a) Dominant castes(b) Upper castes
(c) Lower castes(d) Backward castes

Answer: (a) Dominant castes

If the residential areas are located at a larger distance from the industrial areas, it may lead to:

(a) Increase in commuting time(b) Environmental pollution
(c) Traffic congestion(d) All of the above

Answer: (d) All of the above

The concept of “urban agglomeration” includes:

(a) A single city(b) A continuous urban settlement many times larger than a city
(c) A town(d) A metropolitan city

Answer: (b) A continuous urban settlement many times larger than a city

Which of the following is NOT a means of cultural change?

(a) Religion(b) Sports
(c) Gender(d) Caste

Answer: (c) Gender

Authority, law and domination together result in:

(a) Consent and cooperation(b) Dissent
(c) Violence and crimes(d) Conformity

Answer: (a) Consent and cooperation

Violence is an extreme form of contestation against:

(a) Dominant order(b) Legalities
(c) Social norms(d) All of these

Answer: (d) All of these

The term “social change” is often used to refer to any kind of change EXCEPT:

(a) Economic change(b) Political change
(c) Cultural change(d) No exception, it includes all kinds of changes

Answer: (d) No exception, it includes all kinds of changes

Evolution refers to change that occurs:

(a) Quickly(b) Suddenly
(c) Slowly over a long period(d) None of the above

Answer: (c) Slowly over a long period

Which of the following is an example of revolutionary change?

(a) The Soviet/Russian Revolution of 1917(b) The French Revolution (1789-93)
(c) Both (a) and (b)(d) None of the above

Answer: (c) Both (a) and (b)

Lack of proper housing facilities can result in:

(a) Homelessness(b) Slums
(c) Communal rivalry(d) Both (a) and (b)

Answer: (d) Both (a) and (b)

__________ change refers to transformations in the structure of society or its institutions.

(a) Reformative(b) Institutional
(c) Political(d) Structural

Answer: (d) Structural

During World War II, women in Western countries started working in factories because:

(a) To fight inflation and support family(b) They were skilled and educated
(c) They wanted to explore new opportunities(d) There was no male breadwinner due to war participation

Answer: d) There was no male breadwinner due to war participation

Which of the following is NOT considered a social change?

(i) Changes in values and beliefs

(ii) Women empowerment

(iii) Adapting scientific temper

(iv) Economic reforms

(a) Economic reforms(c) None of the above
(c) Women empowerment(d) Adapting scientific temper

Answer: (b) None of the above

Legitimacy implies:

(a) Conformity to existing norms(b) Use of force
(c) Dissent(d) None of the above

Answer: (a) Conformity to existing norms

__________ ensures that people have the power to legitimise a government.

(a) Monarchy(b) Dictatorship
(c) Universal adult franchise(d) None of the above

Answer: c) Universal adult franchise

The National Rural Employment Guarantee Act was introduced in the year:

(a) 2002(b) 2005
(c) 2010(d) 2015

Answer: (b) 2005

Gated communities refer to:

(a) City centres(b) Commercial hubs
(c) Affluent neighbourhoods separated by walls/gates(d) Rural settlements

Answer: (c) Affluent neighbourhoods separated by walls/gates

Technology helps in: (True/False)

Bringing revolutions, resisting nature, reducing distance between societies.

Answer: True

If the existing law is considered unjust, it is justified to go against it. (True/False)

Answer: True

Social order refers to:

(a) Encouraging continuous change(b) Active maintenance of social relations, values and norms
(c) Overthrowing the existing system(d) None of the above

Answer: (b) Active maintenance of social relations, values and norms

In villages, social differences arose primarily due to:

(a) Caste divisions(b) Surplus produced by settled agriculture
(c) Gender inequalities(d) Religious conflicts

Answer: (b) Surplus produced by settled agriculture

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of the concept of childhood?

(a) A socially constructed idea(b) Viewed as a universal phase of life
(c) Always considered a special phase(d) An evolving notion over time

Answer: (c) Always considered a special phase

Assertion (A): Advertising has projected women’s identity limited to the domestic sphere.

Reason (R): There has been a shift towards portraying women in decision-making economic roles.

(a) Both (A) and (R) are true, and (R) is the correct explanation for (A)(b) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation for (A)
(c) (A) is true, but (R) is false(d) (A) is false, but (R) is true

Answer: (d) (A) is false, but (R) is true

Which one of the following is NOT an impact of the technological revolution?

(a) Social transformation(b) Redistribution of power
(c) Environmental degradation(d) None of the above

Answer: (d) None of the above


Very Short Answer Type Questions

Chapter 2: Social Change and Social Order in Rural and Urban Society – Very Short Answer Type Questions

Define structural change and provide an example.

Answer: Structural change transforms society’s institutions and rules, like introducing paper money changing financial markets.

What is the concept of power in a social context?

Answer: Power in social context is the ability to influence others’ actions, often through coercion or authority.

Explain the term ‘socialisation’ in society.

Answer: Socialisation is the process of learning norms and values through interactions within society.

Describe authority as defined by Max Weber.

Answer: Max Weber defined authority as legitimate power justified as proper within a social framework.

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Define the term ‘social anomaly’ and give an example.

Answer: A social anomaly is a deviation from accepted norms and behaviour. An example is public nudity.

How does innovation affect social structures?

Answer: Innovation leads to changes in social structures like work, family life and relationships between people.


Short Answer Type Questions

Chapter 2: Social Change and Social Order in Rural and Urban Society – Short Answer Type Questions

Universal Adult Franchise brought about a major political change.” Justify.

Answer: Universal Adult Franchise brought about a major political change by empowering the common people with the right to vote and have a say in the formation of government, which was previously restricted to only a privileged minority. It transformed the social structure and power dynamics within society.

Mindmap to remember this answer:

  • Adult Franchise
  • One person, one vote
  • Power to common people
  • Previous: Only privileged minority could vote
  • Social structure transformation
  • Shift in power dynamics

Discuss briefly the technological factor responsible for social change.

Answer: Technological innovations like the steam engine, railways, steamships and new machinery in industries like textile manufacturing brought about major social changes by transforming the economy, transportation, and production systems across the world.

Mindmap to remember this answer:

  • Steam engine
  • Railways
  • Steamships
  • New industrial machinery
  • Economic transformation
  • Transportation revolution
  • Production changes

Explain how social order is maintained?

Answer: Social order is maintained through a combination of spontaneous consent derived from shared values and norms inculcated through socialisation, and the exercise of power and domination by dominant groups and institutions to ensure conformity to established norms.

Mindmap to remember this answer:

  • Spontaneous consent
    • Shared values/norms
    • Socialisation
  • Power/Domination
    • By dominant groups
    • Coercion/Force
    • Legitimacy/Authority
    • Laws

What is the role of environmental factors in social change?

Answer: Environmental factors like natural disasters (earthquakes, floods, volcanic eruptions) and ecological changes (discovery of oil, mineral reserves) can drastically transform societies by altering livelihoods, disrupting social structures and necessitating adaptation.

Mindmap to remember this answer:

  • Natural Disasters
    • Earthquakes
    • Floods
    • Volcanic eruptions
  • Ecological Changes
    • Discovery of oil/minerals
    • Transformation of livelihoods
    • Social structure disruption
    • Forced adaptation

How do changes in values and beliefs impact society?

Answer: Changes in values and beliefs about important social issues like the role of children, position of women, or the significance of sports and popular culture can lead to major transformations in society.

Mindmap to remember this answer:

  • Values/Beliefs
    • Children
    • Women’s position
    • Sports/Popular culture
  • Societal Transformation
    • New laws/policies
    • Changing norms
    • Shift in power dynamics
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Discuss the societal effects of healthcare advancements.

Answer: Healthcare advancements have significantly improved societal health, increasing life expectancy and reducing disease-related mortality. This progress has also influenced social structures by shifting work and family dynamics, and has sparked ethical debates on healthcare equity and accessibility.

Mindmap to remember this answer

  • Keywords: Life expectancy, reduced mortality, family dynamics
  • Concepts: Health improvements, societal impact
  • Ethical Considerations: Equity, accessibility

Social Structures: Changes in work, family roles


Case Based Questions

Chapter 2: Social Change and Social Order in Rural and Urban Society – Case Based Questions

Read the given passage and answer the questions that follow by choosing the correct option.

  1. “Social change refers to alterations in the structure of a society over a period of time. These changes are often driven by various factors including technology, economy, and culture. As technology advances, it allows societies to evolve by overcoming natural limitations, thereby transforming social interactions and economic systems.”

(i) Social change primarily concerns:

(a) Momentary alterations in society

(b) Fundamental transformations in the structure of society

(c) Changes in the weather patterns affecting society

(d) Political changes within society

Answer: (b) Fundamental transformations in the structure of society

(ii) A significant driver of social change mentioned in the passage is:

(a) Technological advancements

(b) Legal reforms

(c) Military conflicts

(d) Short-term economic fluctuations

Answer: (a) Technological advancements

(iii) Which of the following best represents an example of how technology can lead to social change?

(a) The adoption of new agricultural techniques that improve crop yields

(b) A temporary economic boost from a sporting event

(c) A change in political leadership

(d) Seasonal variations in employment rates

Answer: (a) The adoption of new agricultural techniques that improve crop yields

(iv) The impact of economic changes on society often manifests in:

(a) Immediate technological inventions

(b) Changes in social norms and values

(c) The geographical relocation of populations

(d) All of the above

Answer: (b) Changes in social norms and values

Read the given passage and answer the questions that follow by choosing the correct option.

“Culture shapes social structure through shared ideas, values, and beliefs. The influence of religion on societal organisation is profound, as religious norms and values help define civilizational identities and societal changes. Notably, cultural changes can instigate significant social transformations, influencing laws, social norms, and even economic systems.”

(i) The passage suggests that culture affects social structure through:

(a) Shared political ideologies

(b) Economic interactions alone

(c) Shared ideas, values, and beliefs

(d) Technological developments

Answer: (c) Shared ideas, values, and beliefs

(ii) An example of how religion shapes societal organisation is:

(a) Economic policies formulated by the government

(b) The influence of religious norms on laws and societal values

(c) Changes in technology adopted by a society

(d) None of the above

Answer: (b) The influence of religious norms on laws and societal values

(iii) Cultural changes leading to social transformations can influence:

(a) Only religious institutions

(b) Only educational systems

(c) Laws, social norms, and economic systems

(d) Only political campaigns

Answer: (c) Laws, social norms, and economic systems

(iv) The passage highlights the importance of __________ in defining civilizational identities.

(a) Military strength

(b) Technological advancements

(c) Religious norms and values

(d) Economic prosperity

Answer: (c) Religious norms and values

Read the given passage and answer the questions that follow by choosing the correct option.

“Environmental factors have historically shaped the ways societies are structured. For example, communities living in mountainous regions have developed different social structures from those in fertile river valleys due to the constraints and opportunities provided by their environment. Over time, technological advances have lessened the harshness of environmental constraints, allowing for more uniform societal development.”

(i) According to the passage, how have environmental factors influenced societal structures?

(a) By determining the political systems

(b) By influencing the development of social structures based on geographical features

(c) By changing the cultural values directly

(d) None of the above

Answer: (b) By influencing the development of social structures based on geographical features

(ii) Technological advances impact society by:

(a) Reducing the influence of environmental factors

(b) Increasing reliance on traditional methods

(c) Isolating communities geographically

(d) None of the above

Answer: (d) None of the above

(iii) Societies in mountainous regions differ from those in river valleys primarily due to:

(a) Cultural preferences

(b) Environmental constraints and opportunities

(c) Political affiliations

(d) Economic policies

Answer: (b) Environmental constraints and opportunities

(iv) The passage suggests that the role of the environment in shaping societies is:

(a) Increasing over time

(b) Decreasing due to technological advances

(c) Unchanged by human action

(d) Not significant historically

Answer: (b) Decreasing due to technological advances

Read the given passage and answer the questions that follow by choosing the correct option.

“Political changes can lead to profound social transformations. Historical events such as revolutions or shifts in power can redefine social structures, distribution of power, and cultural norms. The redistribution of power during political upheavals often results in lasting changes to societal organisation and group dynamics.”

(i) The passage indicates that political changes:

(a) Have little impact on societal structures

(b) Can lead to profound and lasting social transformations

(c) Are less influential than technological changes

(d) Affect only the ruling classes

Answer: (b) Can lead to profound and lasting social transformations

(ii) Historical events like revolutions impact society by:

(a) Temporarily disrupting daily activities

(b) Redefining social structures and power distributions

(c) Changing geographical boundaries only

(d) Influencing entertainment and leisure activities

Answer: (b) Redefining social structures and power distributions

(iii) Redistribution of power during political upheavals results in:

(a) Short-term economic effects

(b) Lasting changes to societal organisation

(c) Minimal changes to cultural norms

(d) None of the above

Answer: (b) Lasting changes to societal organisation

(iv) The primary effect of shifts in power on group dynamics is:

(a) Increased economic disparities

(b) Improved technological innovation

(c) Redefined roles and relationships within society

(d) Temporary social unrest

Answer: (c) Redefined roles and relationships within society


Long Answer Type Questions

Chapter 2: Social Change and Social Order in Rural and Urban Society – Long Answer Type Questions

Explain the concept of “Social Darwinism” and its influence on societal structures. Discuss how Darwin’s theories of natural evolution were adapted to social contexts and the implications this has had on modern sociological theories.

Answer: The concept of “Social Darwinism” refers to the application of Charles Darwin’s theories of natural selection and survival of the fittest to social contexts and societal structures. It suggests that social groups or races compete for limited resources, and the strongest or most adaptable groups will thrive and dominate, while the weaker ones will eventually decline or become extinct. This idea had significant implications on sociological theories and was often used to justify social inequalities, racism, and imperialism.
Social Darwinism emerged in the late 19th century when scholars attempted to extend Darwin’s biological concepts to human societies. They believed that competition and struggle for existence were inherent in all aspects of life, including social, economic, and political realms. This perspective was used to justify the exploitation of weaker groups, colonialism, and the dominance of certain races or classes over others.
However, modern sociological theories have largely rejected the principles of Social Darwinism, recognizing it as a flawed and unethical ideology that perpetuates harmful stereotypes and discrimination. Instead, contemporary sociological theories emphasise the complex interplay of social, cultural, economic, and political factors that shape societal structures and inequalities.

Mindmap to remember this answer:

  • Application of Darwin’s natural selection and survival of the fittest to social contexts
  • Justification for social inequalities, racism, and imperialism
  • Competition and struggle for limited resources among social groups
  • Dominance of stronger, more adaptable groups over weaker ones
  • Emerged in late 19th century
  • Used to justify colonialism and exploitation
  • Rejected by modern sociological theories
  • Focus on complex social, cultural, economic, and political factors

Discuss the various forms of social change identified in the textbook, focusing particularly on structural changes and changes in ideas, values, and beliefs. How do these changes impact society at a fundamental level? Provide examples to illustrate the nature and impact of these changes.

Answer: The textbook identifies two major forms of social change – structural change and changes in ideas, values, and beliefs. Structural changes refer to transformations in the structure of society, its institutions, and the rules governing them. The emergence of paper currency is cited as an example of a structural change that revolutionised financial markets and transactions.
On the other hand, changes in ideas, values, and beliefs can profoundly impact social life. The evolving notions of childhood and the shift from viewing children as small adults to a special stage of life requiring protection and education are highlighted. This change in beliefs led to the enactment of laws banning child labour and promoting compulsory education, fundamentally transforming societal attitudes and practices.
Both structural changes and changes in ideas, values, and beliefs can have far-reaching implications for society. Structural changes can reshape economic, political, and social organisations, while changes in beliefs and values can challenge existing norms, promote social reforms, and drive cultural shifts. These changes often reinforce and influence each other, leading to transformative impacts on various aspects of societal life.

Mindmap to remember this answer:

  • Structural changes
    • Transformations in societal institutions and rules
    • Example: Emergence of paper currency
  • Changes in ideas, values, and beliefs
    • Evolving notions and perspectives
    • Example: Changing views on childhood and child labour
  • Interrelated and reinforcing
    • Structural changes reshape organisations
    • Belief changes challenge norms and drive reforms
  • Far-reaching implications
    • Economic, political, and social impacts
    • Cultural shifts and societal transformations
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Analyse the cultural factors driving social change, particularly focusing on religion and gender roles as discussed in the textbook. How have changes in cultural values led to significant societal transformations? Provide examples of such transformations from both historical and modern perspectives.

Answer: Cultural factors play a significant role in driving social change, with religion and gender roles being two prominent examples. Changes in cultural values and beliefs can lead to profound societal transformations, as evidenced by historical and modern examples.
Religion has been a powerful force in shaping societies throughout history. Scholars have even defined civilizations in religious terms and viewed history as the process of interaction between religions. The impact of Buddhism on ancient India’s social and political life and the influence of the Bhakti Movement on medieval India’s social structure, including the caste system, are notable examples of religion-driven social change in the Indian context. Max Weber’s study “The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism” famously demonstrated how the religious beliefs of certain Protestant sects contributed to the establishment of the capitalist social system in the West.
Gender roles and the evolution of ideas about women’s place in society have also been significant drivers of social change. In the modern era, women’s struggles for equality have helped transform societies in numerous ways. Historical events like World War II, during which women in Western countries took on traditionally male-dominated factory jobs, helped advance their claims to equality. The economic role of women as primary household decision-makers has also had far-reaching effects, such as the increased targeting of women by advertisers and the media’s portrayal of women as decision-makers and important figures in society.
In conclusion, changes in cultural values, particularly those related to religion and gender roles, have been and continue to be powerful catalysts for social change. These transformations can be gradual or sudden, but their impact on societies is often profound and enduring.

Mindmap to remember this answer:

  • Cultural factors drive social change
      • Religion and gender roles are prominent examples
      • Changes in cultural values and beliefs lead to societal transformations
  • Religion as a powerful force in shaping societies
      • Scholars define civilizations in religious terms
      • History viewed as the interaction between religions
      • Examples in Indian context:
        • Buddhism’s impact on ancient India’s social and political life
        • Bhakti Movement’s influence on medieval India’s social structure and caste system
      • Max Weber’s study: Protestant sects’ beliefs contributing to capitalism in the West
  • Gender roles and women’s place in society as drivers of social change
      • Women’s struggles for equality transform societies in the modern era
      • Historical events like World War II advance women’s claims to equality
        • Women taking on traditionally male-dominated factory jobs
      • Women’s economic role as household decision-makers
        • Increased targeting of women by advertisers
        • Media’s portrayal of women as decision-makers and important figures
  • Changes in cultural values related to religion and gender roles are powerful catalysts for social change
    • Transformations can be gradual or sudden
    • Impact on societies is often profound and enduring.


Sample Questions Paper

Chapter 2: Social Change and Social Order in Rural and Urban Society – Sample Questions Paper

Time allowed: 2 hoursMaximum Marks: 40

General Instructions:

  • The question paper contains 14 questions.
  • All questions are compulsory.
  • Section A: Question number 1 and 2 are 1 mark source-based questions. Answers to these questions must not exceed 10-15 words.
  • Section B: Question number 3 to 9 are 2 marks questions. These are very short-answer type questions. Answers to these questions should not exceed 30 words.
  • Section C: Question number 10 to 12 are 4 marks questions. These are short-answer type questions. Answers to these questions should not exceed 80 words.
  • Section D: Question number 13 and 14 are 6 marks questions. These are long-answer type questions. Answers to these questions should not exceed 200 words.

SECTION A

  1. What term is used to describe changes that are significant enough to alter the underlying structure of a situation over time? [1 mark]
  2. Darwin’s theory emphasised the survival of which type of life forms?
    [1 mark]

SECTION B

  1. Explain the difference between evolutionary and revolutionary change using examples from the text. [2 marks]
  2. What is “social Darwinism” as described in the textbook? [2 marks]
  3. Describe the impact of the environment on societies as discussed in the text. [2 marks]
  4. What role do technological changes play in social change according to the textbook? [2 marks]
  5. How has political change been a cause of social change? Provide an example from the text. [2 marks]
  6. What is meant by “cultural change”? How can it lead to social change? [2 marks]
  7. Discuss the concept of “structural change” using an example related to currency as mentioned in the textbook. [2 marks]

SECTION C

  1. How does the textbook describe the relationship between social change and social order? [4 marks]
  2. What are the implications of urbanisation as discussed in the text? [4 marks]
  3. Explain the phenomenon of ‘gentrification’ using the understanding provided in the text. [4 marks]

SECTION D

  1. Analyse the impact of technological and economic changes in modern society with examples from the Industrial Revolution as discussed in the text. [6 marks]
  2. Discuss the interplay between culture, religion, and social change as detailed in the textbook, using specific movements or historical examples provided. [6 marks]

 

SOCIOLOGY

Time allowed: 2 hoursMaximum Marks: 40

General Instructions:

  • The question paper contains 14 questions.
  • All questions are compulsory.
  • Section A: Question number 1 and 2 are 1 mark source-based questions. Answers to these questions must not exceed 10-15 words.
  • Section B: Question number 3 to 9 are 2 marks questions. These are very short-answer type questions. Answers to these questions should not exceed 30 words.
  • Section C: Question number 10 to 12 are 4 marks questions. These are short-answer type questions. Answers to these questions should not exceed 80 words.
  • Section D: Question number 13 and 14 are 6 marks questions. These are long-answer type questions. Answers to these questions should not exceed 200 words.

Section A

  1. “It is often said that change is the only unchanging aspect of society.” What does the author imply by this statement? (1)
  2. “Evolution is the name given to a kind of change that takes place slowly over a long period of time.” Give one example from the passage of an evolutionary social change. (1)

Section B

  1. Differentiate between structural and cultural changes with examples. (2)
  2. How is power different from authority according to the passage? (2)
  3. “Sudden fluctuations in agricultural prices, droughts or floods can cause havoc in rural society.” Illustrate with one example. (2)
  4. How did the introduction of paper currency bring about structural changes in society? (2)
  5. Why does the phenomenon of slums emerge in urban areas? (2)
  6. What are some positive aspects of urbanisation mentioned in the passage? (2)
  7. Why are villages considered more resilient to social change than cities? Give two reasons. (2)

Section C

  1. Examine how religions have acted as sources of social change with examples from the passage. (4)

OR 

How did commercialization of agriculture create new economic and social structures according to the passage? (4)

  1. How has the nationalist movement impacted Indian society according to the passage? Analyze. (4)
    OR
    Discuss the role of environment and ecology as factors causing social change using examples from the passage. (4)
  2. Distinguish between the factors that differentiate villages from towns/cities with examples. (4)

Section D

  1. Discuss the various forms of domination, legitimate authority and contestation that contribute to social order and change. (6)
    OR
    Examine in detail the impact of technological changes like the industrial revolution on economic and social structures. (6)
  2. Analyse the impact of technological and economic changes on social structures using examples from the passage. (6)
    OR
    Examine the complex inter-relationship between social order and social change in rural and urban contexts with illustrations from the passage. (6)
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