Chapter 3: Environment and Society – CBSE NCERT Sociology Class 11 Notes

Class 11 Sociology Notes for Chapter 3: Environment and Society
Get Class 11 Sociology Notes, Questions and Practice Papers for Chapter 3: Environment and Society. Candidates who want to pass Class 11 with a good grade can use this article for Notes, Questions, and Practice Papers. We have provided a link below to access the Class 11 Sociology Notes, Important Questions and Practice Paper on the topic Sociology and Society. You can practise the questions and check your answers using the solutions provided after each question.

Chapter Definitions and Short Notes

Chapter 3: Environment and Society – Short Notes and Definitions

Environmental Sociology: Understanding the Relationship Between Society and Environment

Environmental sociology studies the dynamic interactions between society and the environment. It explores how human activities influence the environment and how these environmental changes, in turn, affect social structures. This field of sociology examines the ecological basis of societies, highlighting how the biophysical environment—like climate, geography, and biology—shapes and is shaped by social activities and decisions. The discipline analyses how social, economic, and political factors contribute to environmental problems and how these issues can be addressed through changes in social behaviour and policy.

Example: The introduction of industrial farming techniques has dramatically changed both the environment and rural societies. These changes include increased production capabilities but also lead to challenges such as soil degradation, increased pesticide use, and altered social dynamics in farming communities.

Short Pointers:

  • Ecological Basis: All societies are fundamentally connected to their physical and biological environments.
  • Human Impact: Human activities such as deforestation and urbanisation significantly alter ecological conditions, affecting aspects like river flow and wildlife habitats.
  • Social Influence: The structure of society, including its economic systems and property relations, determines how natural resources are used and managed.
  • Cultural Perspectives: Different societies may view environmental issues through various lenses, influenced by values, beliefs, and economic interests.
  • Management Challenges: Effective environmental management is complicated by the complex interplay between natural systems and human interventions, often exacerbated by industrial activities.
  • Risk Societies: Modern societies face increased risks from environmental problems due to complex technologies and industrial processes, as seen in disasters like Chernobyl and Bhopal.

The Bhopal Industrial Disaster: Analysis and Prevention

The Bhopal disaster, which occurred on the night of December 3, 1984, is one of the most tragic industrial accidents in history. It was caused by the accidental release of methyl isocyanate (MIC) gas from a Union Carbide pesticide plant in Bhopal, India.
The disaster resulted in approximately 4,000 immediate deaths and left over 200,000 people permanently disabled. This catastrophe highlighted severe lapses in industrial safety, government regulation, and corporate responsibility. It underscores the complex interplay between industrial operations, regulatory bodies, political connections, and community safety measures.

Short Pointers:

  • Event: Accidental release of MIC gas from Union Carbide’s Bhopal plant on December 3, 1984.
  • Immediate Impact: Approximately 4,000 deaths and over 200,000 permanent disabilities.
  • Safety Lapses: Inadequate safety measures at the plant, including a lack of an early warning system and poor maintenance.
  • Government Oversight Failures: Ignored warnings, inadequate enforcement of safety guidelines, and corruption influenced by corporate donations and political connections.
  • Corporate Negligence: Union Carbide’s failure to implement adequate safety protocols, maintain plant operations effectively, and engage with the local community on emergency procedures.
  • Preventative Measures: Enhance regulatory oversight, enforce strict safety standards, establish transparent systems for accountability, and, improve community engagement and emergency preparedness.

Major Environmental Problems and Risks

Major environmental problems and risks can differ in their importance or urgency based on the country or specific context. This means that what might be a critical environmental issue in one area might not be as pressing in another due to different circumstances or priorities.

Short Pointers:

  • Environmental issues vary by location.
  • Importance of an issue depends on the local context.
  • Urgency can differ from one country to another.

Resource Depletion

Resource depletion refers to the consumption of non-renewable natural resources at a rate faster than the Earth can replenish them. This includes the overuse of fossil fuels, groundwater, and land resources.
The depletion not only affects resources like petroleum but also leads to severe degradation of water and land. In regions like Punjab, Haryana, and Uttar Pradesh in India, the rapid decline in groundwater due to demands from agriculture, industry, and urbanisation is a critical example.
The diversion and damming of rivers, alongside urban development over natural water bodies, have caused irreversible ecological damage. Similarly, intensive agriculture and construction activities have led to the erosion of topsoil and the loss of biodiversity, threatening various unique species.

Example: The sharp decline in the tiger population in India, despite conservation efforts, illustrates the impact of habitat loss due to resource depletion.

Short Pointers:

  • Resource depletion involves the rapid use of non-renewable resources faster than they can be replenished.
  • Critical examples include the overuse of groundwater in India, and the loss of topsoil due to urban and agricultural pressures.
  • Habitat destruction leads to biodiversity loss, endangering species such as the tiger in India.
  • Environmental impacts are severe, affecting water basins, soil quality, and biodiversity habitats like forests and wetlands.


Pollution is a major environmental problem that affects both urban and rural areas, leading to serious health issues and death. Air pollution sources include industrial emissions, vehicle exhausts, and the burning of wood and coal for domestic purposes.
Notably, indoor air pollution, such as smoke from cooking fires in rural homes, poses a significant risk to health, especially for women who are exposed to smoke from inefficient wood fires and poorly ventilated kitchens. The World Health Organisation reported that in 2012, air pollution was responsible for one in eight of all global deaths, making it the world’s largest single environmental health risk.
Water pollution, caused by domestic sewage, industrial effluents, and agricultural runoff, and noise pollution from various urban activities, also significantly impair environmental and public health.

Short Pointers:

  • Pollution includes air, water, and noise pollution with severe
    health impacts.
  • Main sources of air pollution: industrial emissions, vehicle exhaust, and domestic smoke.
  • Indoor air pollution significantly affects rural populations,
    especially women.
  • Water pollution originates from sewage, industrial wastes, and agricultural chemicals.
  • Noise pollution comes from loudspeakers, vehicles, and
    construction activities.
  • WHO highlighted air pollution as a leading global environmental health risk.

Global Warming

Global warming is the increase in Earth’s average surface temperature due to the release of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and methane. These gases trap the sun’s heat in the atmosphere, leading to a greenhouse effect. This warming causes significant changes in climate, including the melting of polar ice caps, rising sea levels, and increased climate variability. These changes threaten ecological balances and increase the likelihood of extreme weather conditions.
Countries like China and India are noted as major contributors to these emissions, significantly impacting global climate patterns.

Short Pointers:

  • Greenhouse gases trap heat, causing global temperatures to rise.
  • Effects include melting ice, rising sea levels, and disrupted ecological balances.
  • Leads to unpredictable weather and climate fluctuations worldwide.
  • Significant emissions contributions from rapidly industrialising countries like China and India.

Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs)

Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) are organisms whose genetic material has been altered using gene-splicing techniques. This technology enables scientists to transfer genes from one species to another, endowing the recipient species with new traits.
For example, cotton can be genetically engineered to resist pests like the bollworm by incorporating genes from Bacillus thuringiensis. Besides pest resistance, genetic modifications can also enhance crop characteristics such as growth rate, size, and shelf-life.
However, the long-term effects of GMOs on human health and the environment are not fully understood. Moreover, some agricultural companies use this technology to produce sterile seeds, which prevents farmers from reusing their seeds, thereby increasing dependency on seed companies for new seeds each planting season.

Short Pointers:

  • GMOs involve transferring genes from one species to another to introduce new traits.
  • Common modifications include pest resistance, faster growth, and extended shelf-life.
  • Concerns exist about the long-term impacts of GMOs on health and ecosystems.
  • Some GMOs contain ‘terminator’ technology, which produces sterile seeds to ensure farmers must buy new seeds annually.

Natural and Man-made Environmental Disasters

Natural and man-made environmental disasters are catastrophic events that have severe impacts on the environment and human populations. Natural disasters are caused by natural forces, while man-made disasters result from human activity. These events can lead to significant loss of life, property damage, and environmental degradation.
The Bhopal disaster, where a toxic gas leak caused approximately 4,000 deaths, is an example of a man-made disaster. A natural disaster example is the 2004 tsunami, which caused massive casualties and destruction across multiple countries.


  • Man-made disaster: The Bhopal disaster of 1984 involved a toxic gas leak from the Union Carbide factory.
  • Natural disaster: The 2004 tsunami in the Indian Ocean caused thousands of deaths and widespread devastation.

Short Pointers:

  • Environmental disasters are divided into natural (caused by nature) and man-made (caused by human activities).
  • Both types of disasters can result in substantial human, material, and environmental losses.
  • Examples include the Bhopal gas leak (man-made) and the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami (natural).

Why Environmental Problems Are Also Social Problems

Environmental problems are deeply intertwined with social issues due to the influence of social inequality on how different groups are affected by environmental crises.
The ability to shield oneself from or address environmental issues is often a function of one’s social status and power. For example, wealthier individuals might deploy solutions that protect themselves at the expense of exacerbating environmental disparities for less affluent groups.
Moreover, what seems like universal environmental concerns, such as reducing air pollution or preserving biodiversity, can sometimes disproportionately benefit or harm different social groups, reflecting and reinforcing existing inequalities.

Example: In Kutch, Gujarat, richer farmers have invested in deep bore tubewells to extract groundwater for irrigation, leaving poorer villagers without drinking water during droughts.

Short Pointers:

  • Environmental issues are influenced by social status and power dynamics.
  • Wealthier groups may protect themselves from environmental problems, worsening conditions for poorer groups.
  • Environmental policies may serve the interests of powerful groups, neglecting or harming vulnerable populations.
  • Social relations and property organisation significantly affect environmental perceptions and management.
  • Resolving environmental problems requires addressing underlying social inequalities and changing intergroup relations.

Sustainable Development

Sustainable development is defined as development that meets the current needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
It emphasises the balance between ecological protection and economic progress to ensure that the exploitation of resources, technological advancements, and the direction of economic development do not harm the environment or deplete resources that future generations would depend on.
The Brundtland Report highlights the importance of prioritising the essential needs of the world’s poor and recognizing the limitations imposed by technology and social organisation on environmental sustainability.

Short Pointers:

  • Sustainable development balances current economic needs with long-term environmental health.
  • It prioritises the needs of the world’s poor and considers the ecological limits.
  • Emphasises that economic activities should not compromise future generations’ ability to meet their needs.
  • Inspired the United Nations’ 17 Global Goals aimed at addressing key aspects of sustainability on a global scale.
  • Reflects on the inequality and consumption patterns in capitalist societies, advocating for a more equitable resource distribution.

Water Depletion in Urban Environments

Water depletion in urban environments often occurs as cities expand, leading to increased competition for scarce resources such as land, water, and air. As urban areas grow to accommodate infrastructure like malls, hotels, and tourist sites, the demand for these resources intensifies. Migrants seeking employment in the city often settle on public lands because they cannot afford legal housing, only to be later displaced to city outskirts due to development pressures.
This process not only affects land availability but also strains water resources, making them a highly contested commodity in urban settings.

Short Pointers:

  • Urban expansion increases demand for scarce resources, including water.
  • Migrants settling on public lands are displaced by development, exacerbating resource scarcity.
  • Development for affluent facilities like malls and hotels intensifies competition for water.
  • Water becomes a contested resource as cities grow and their infrastructural needs increase.

NCERT Solutions

NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Sociology – Chapter 3: Environment and Society

Describe in your own words what you understand by the term ‘ecology’.

Answer: Ecology is the study of the relationships between living organisms and their environment. It encompasses the physical and biological systems and processes that make up the natural world, including mountains, rivers, plains, oceans, and the flora and fauna they support. The ecology of a place is shaped by the interaction of its geography and hydrology, which determine the unique adaptations of its plant and animal life.
For example, a desert has its own distinct ecology, with plants and animals adapted to scarce rainfall, rocky or sandy soils, and extreme temperatures. Human societies also have an ecological basis, as we depend on natural resources for our survival and development.
However, human activities increasingly shape and modify the environment, sometimes in harmful and permanent ways. Understanding ecology is crucial for addressing the many urgent environmental problems we face today and finding sustainable solutions.

Mindmap to remember this answer:

  • Ecology definition
    • Study of relationships between organisms and environment
    • Includes physical and biological systems and processes
      • Mountains, rivers, plains, oceans
      • Flora and fauna
  • Ecology of a place shaped by:
    • Geography
    • Hydrology
    • Determines unique adaptations of plant and animal life
  • Desert ecology example
    • Adapted to scarce rainfall, rocky/sandy soils, extreme temperatures
  • Human societies have ecological basis
    • Dependent on natural resources
  • Human activities modify environment
    • Can be harmful and permanent
  • Understanding ecology crucial for:
    • Addressing environmental problems
    • Finding sustainable solutions

Why is ecology not limited only to the forces of nature?

Answer: Ecology is not limited only to the forces of nature because human activities have significantly modified and influenced the environment. While ecology appears to be a natural feature of the environment, it has been shaped by human actions over time.
For example, situations like aridity and floods, which seem like natural phenomena, can often be caused by human activities such as deforestation in the upper catchment of a river. This can make the river more susceptible to flooding. Climate change due to global warming is another instance of how human activities can have a widespread impact on nature.
Moreover, there are many ecological elements around us that are clearly human-made. Agricultural farms, with their soil and water conservation works, cultivated plants, domesticated animals, and inputs of synthetic fertilisers and pesticides, are examples of how humans have transformed nature. The built environment of a city, made from materials like concrete, cement, brick, stone, glass and tar, also uses natural resources but is very much a human creation.
Over time, it has become increasingly difficult to separate and distinguish between the natural and human factors in ecological change. Human activities have the power to permanently alter the environment.

Mindmap to remember this answer:

  • Ecology modified by human actions
    • Aridity and floods can be caused by deforestation
    • Climate change due to global warming
  • Human-made ecological elements
    • Agricultural farms with soil and water conservation, cultivated plants, domesticated animals, synthetic inputs
    • Built environment of cities using natural resources
  • Hard to separate natural and human factors in ecological change
  • Human activities can permanently alter the environment

Describe the two-way process by which ‘social environments’ emerge.

Answer: Social environments emerge from the interaction between biophysical ecology and human interventions through a two-way process. Just as nature shapes society, society also shapes nature.
For example, the fertile soil of the Indo-Gangetic floodplain enables intensive agriculture. Its high productivity allows dense population settlements and generates enough surpluses to support other, non-agricultural activities, giving rise to complex hierarchical societies and states. On the other hand, the desert of Rajasthan can only support pastoralists who move from place to place to keep their livestock supplied with fodder. These are instances of ecology shaping the forms of human life and culture.
Conversely, the social organisation of capitalism has shaped nature across the world. The private automobile is one example of a capitalist commodity that has transformed lives and landscapes. Air pollution and congestion in cities, regional conflicts and wars over oil, and global warming are some of the environmental effects of cars.
Human interventions increasingly have the power to permanently alter environments. This two-way interaction between biophysical ecology and human actions is what leads to the emergence of social environments.

Mindmap to remember this answer:

  • Social environments emerge from interaction between biophysical ecology and human interventions
  • Two-way process
    • Nature shapes society
      • Indo-Gangetic floodplain enables intensive agriculture, dense population, complex societies
      • Rajasthan desert supports pastoralists
    • Society shapes nature
      • Capitalism shapes nature worldwide
      • Private automobiles transform lives and landscapes, causing pollution, congestion, conflicts, global warming
  • Human interventions can permanently alter environments
  • Two-way interaction leads to emergence of social environments

Why and how does social organisation shape the relationship between the environment and society?

Answer: The relationship between the environment and society is deeply influenced by social organisation, which determines how natural resources are managed and used. For example, the ownership of resources like forests or water can be held by the government or private individuals. This ownership dictates who can access these resources and under what conditions. For instance, if the government owns a forest, it can decide to either lease it to timber companies or allow local villagers to use it sustainably.
Social organisation also affects various groups differently. In many societies, landless labourers and women might not have the same access to natural resources as men do. This differential access can lead to varied relationships with the environment based on gender and social status. For instance, in rural India, women, who are primarily responsible for collecting water and fuel, face difficulties due to lack of control over these resources.
Moreover, social values and norms under different economic systems like capitalism or socialism greatly influence environmental relations. Capitalism tends to commodify nature, focusing on profit, whereas socialist values might lead to land redistribution to promote equality. Similarly, religious values can lead people to either conserve or exploit natural resources based on their beliefs.
Thus, understanding how social organisation shapes the interaction between environment and society is crucial for addressing environmental issues effectively. This requires recognizing the power dynamics and social inequalities that influence these interactions.

Mindmap to remember this answer:

  • Ownership and Control
      • Government vs. Private ownership
      • Access to resources (who, how)
  • Social Groups and Access
      • Gender and social status differences (e.g., women, landless labourers)
      • Examples from rural India
  • Economic Systems
      • Capitalism: Commodification of nature, profit focus
      • Socialism: Redistribution of resources, equality
  • Religious and Social Values
      • Conservation vs. exploitation based on beliefs
  • Importance of Understanding
    • Address environmental issues effectively
    • Recognise social inequalities and power dynamics

Why is environmental management a complex and huge task for society?

Answer: Environmental management is an enormously complex and challenging task for society due to several reasons. Firstly, the relationships between humans and the environment have become increasingly intricate, as industrialization has led to an unprecedented acceleration and expansion of resource extraction, affecting ecosystems in unprecedented ways. Secondly, the sophisticated industrial technologies and organisational modes require complex management systems, which are often fragile and prone to errors, leading to disasters like Chernobyl and Bhopal. Furthermore, we live in risk societies, utilising technologies and products that we do not fully comprehend, which can have unforeseen and far-reaching consequences. Additionally, our ability to predict and control biophysical processes is limited, making it difficult to manage the environment effectively.

Mindmap to remember this answer:

  • Industrialization
    • Accelerated resource extraction
    • Unprecedented impact on ecosystems
  • Complex technologies and organisation
    • Sophisticated management systems
    • Fragile, prone to errors
    • Disasters (Chernobyl, Bhopal)
  • Limited understanding
    • Living in risk societies
    • Technologies not fully grasped
  • Difficulty predicting biophysical processes
    • Limits ability to control the environment

What are some of the important forms of pollution-related environmental hazards?

Answer: Some of the important forms of pollution-related environmental hazards include air pollution, water pollution, and noise pollution. Air pollution is a major problem in both urban and rural areas, causing respiratory issues and other serious illnesses. The sources of air pollution are emissions from industries and vehicles, as well as the burning of wood and coal for domestic purposes.
Indoor air pollution from cooking fires, especially in rural homes using poorly ventilated wood fires, is also a significant risk, particularly for women who do most of the cooking.
Water pollution severely affects both surface and groundwater sources, with major contributors being domestic sewage, factory effluents, and agricultural runoff containing fertilisers and pesticides. The pollution of rivers and water bodies is a particularly pressing concern.
Noise pollution, often addressed through court orders, plagues cities due to sources like loud speakers, vehicle horns, traffic, and construction work.

Mindmap to remember this answer:

Air Pollution

  • Urban and rural areas
  • Industries and vehicles
  • Domestic fuel burning
  • Indoor pollution from cooking fires
    • Risks for rural women

Water Pollution

  • Surface and groundwater
  • Sewage and industrial effluents
  • Agricultural runoff (fertilisers, pesticides)
  • River and water body pollution

Noise Pollution

  • Cities
  • Loud speakers
  • Vehicle horns and traffic
  • Construction work

What are the major environmental issues associated with resource depletion?

Answer: The major environmental issues associated with resource depletion include the rapid decline of groundwater levels across India, especially in states like Punjab, Haryana, and Uttar Pradesh, where aquifers accumulated over thousands of years are being depleted within a few decades due to intensive agricultural, industrial and urban demands. Rivers have been dammed and diverted, causing irreversible damage to the ecology of water basins.
Many urban water bodies have been filled up, destroying the natural drainage system. Topsoil, a crucial agricultural resource created over millennia, is being lost due to poor environmental management practices leading to erosion, water-logging, and salinization.
Additionally, the production of bricks for construction is another contributor to topsoil depletion. Biodiversity habitats like forests, grasslands, and wetlands are facing rapid depletion largely due to the expansion of agricultural areas, endangering numerous species unique to India.

Mindmap to remember this answer:

  • Groundwater Depletion
      • Rapid decline of levels
      • States like Punjab, Haryana, UP
      • Meeting agricultural, industrial, urban demands
  • River Ecology Damage
    • Dams and diversions
    • Irreversible harm to water basins
  • Urban Water Body Loss
    • Filled up and built over
    • Destroyed natural drainage
  • Topsoil Loss
    • Created over thousands of years
    • Erosion, water-logging, salinization
    • Brick production
  • Biodiversity Habitat Loss
    • Forests, grasslands, wetlands
    • Expansion of agricultural areas
    • Endangering unique species

Explain why environmental problems are simultaneously social problems.

Answer: Environmental problems are simultaneously social problems because how environmental issues affect different groups is determined by social inequality and power dynamics. Social status and power dictate the extent to which people can insulate themselves from environmental crises or overcome them.
For instance, in water-scarce Kutch, Gujarat, wealthier farmers can afford deep tubewells to irrigate their cash crop fields, while poorer villagers’ wells run dry during droughts, and the lush fields of the rich seem to mock their plight. While certain environmental concerns may appear universal, a sociological analysis reveals that how public priorities are set and pursued may not benefit everyone equally.
Securing the public interest may actually serve the interests of politically and economically powerful groups, at the expense of the poor and weak. Environmental crises, therefore, stem from underlying social inequalities.

Mindmap to remember this answer:

  • Social Inequality
      • Determines impact of environmental problems
      • Status and power allow insulation
    • Example: Kutch, Gujarat
      • Rich farmers: Tubewells for cash crops
      • Poor villagers: No water in droughts
  • Public Priorities
      • May not benefit all equally
      • Can serve powerful groups’ interests
      • Hurt the poor and weak
  • Environmental crises rooted in social inequality
    • Need to change environment-society relations
    • Requires changing relations between groups

 What is meant by social ecology?

Answer: Social ecology refers to the perspective that social relations, particularly the organisation of property and production, shape environmental perceptions and practices. Different social groups have varied relationships with the environment and approach it differently.
For example, the Forest Department focused on maximising revenues from supplying bamboo to the paper industry will view and utilise a forest very differently from an artisan who harvests bamboo to make baskets. Their divergent interests and ideologies generate environmental conflicts. According to this school of thought, environmental crises have their roots in social inequality.
Addressing environmental problems requires changing the environment-society relations, which in turn necessitates efforts to alter relations between different social groups like men and women, urban and rural people, landlords and labourers. Changed social relations will give rise to different knowledge systems and modes of managing the environment.

Mindmap to remember this answer:

Social Ecology

  • Social relations shape environmental approach
    • Property and production organisation
  • Different groups, different perspectives
    • Forest Department vs. Artisan (bamboo use)
  • Environmental conflicts from varied interests

Roots in Social Inequality

  • Environmental crises stem from inequality

Changing Environment-Society Relations

  • Requires changing relations between groups
    • Men/Women, Urban/Rural, Landlords/Labourers
  • Leads to new knowledge, management modes

MCQ Questions

Chapter 3: Environment and Society – MCQ Questions

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Chapter 3: Environment and Society – Very Short Answer Type Questions

Define ecology in the context of social relationships.

Answer: Ecology defines social relationships’ basis on environment-society interaction.

How does the physical environment impact social structures, according to the textbook?

Answer: The physical environment shapes social structures by enabling or limiting activities.

What role does deforestation play in ecological change?

Answer: Deforestation can make rivers more flood-prone by human intervention.

Describe the impact of human actions on ecological processes.

Answer: Human actions like deforestation, global warming alter ecological processes permanently.

What is the significance of biophysical ecology in urban environments?

Answer: Biophysical ecology’s significance is cities being built using natural resources.

How do social organisations influence ecological relationships?

Answer: Social organisation determines how and by whom natural resources are used.

Explain the concept of social ecology as outlined in the textbook.

Answer: Social ecology views how social relations shape environmental perceptions and practices.

Discuss the role of property relations in environmental management.

Answer: Property relations determine how and by whom natural resources are used.

What are the social implications of resource depletion as mentioned in the textbook?

Answer: Resource depletion worsens social inequalities as richer groups can exploit them.

How does industrialization contribute to environmental challenges?

Answer: With industrialization, resource extraction has expanded, affecting ecosystems unprecedentedly.

Define sustainable development as described in the textbook.

Answer: Sustainable development meets present needs without compromising future generations’ needs.

What is the relationship between environmental problems and social inequality?

Answer: Environmental problems worsen social inequalities as powerful groups can exploit resources.

Discuss the impact of capitalist development on ecology.

Answer: Capitalist development emphasises controlling nature for profit, causing ecological havoc.

What are the major risks associated with genetically modified organisms?

Answer: Major risks of genetically modified organisms include potential long-term ecological impacts, loss of biodiversity, and dependency on seed companies.

Explain the environmental and social impact of global warming.

Answer: Global warming causes sea levels to rise, disrupts habitats, increases weather extremes, and affects social disparities.

Describe the sociological perspective on why environmental crises occur.

Answer: Environmental crises stem from how societies organise and manage resources, reflecting deep social inequalities.

What does the textbook say about the role of technology in managing environmental risks?

Answer: Technology in environmental management is essential but complex and often vulnerable to errors.

Explain the ecological and social impact of air pollution as outlined in the textbook.

Answer: Air pollution causes serious health issues and disproportionately impacts rural, low-income communities.

What consequences does water pollution have on human and ecological systems?

Answer: Water pollution harms aquatic life, disrupts ecosystems, and poses serious health risks to humans.

How does noise pollution affect urban environments, according to the textbook?

Answer: Noise pollution disrupts daily life, increases stress, impairs concentration, and contributes to hearing loss.

Describe the effects of natural disasters on social structures.

Answer: Natural disasters disrupt communities, strain resources, and deepen existing social inequalities.

How do social values influence environmental policies and practices?

Answer: Social values like capitalism, socialism and religion influence how we perceive, use and manage the environment.

Discuss the concept of the ecosystem based on the textbook content.

Answer: Ecology refers to the web of physical and biological systems, including humans, that interact with each other.

What is the role of the cultural environment in shaping ecological interactions?

Answer: Cultural values like capitalism, socialism and religion influence how societies perceive, use and manage the environment.

Define urban ecology and its relevance to modern cities.

Answer: Urban ecology studies the interaction between humans, cities and the environment. It is crucial for managing modern cities.

How do different social groups relate to their environment according to the textbook?

Answer: According to the textbook, different social groups have varied interests, ideologies and relationships with the environment.

What are the effects of resource control and ownership on environmental access?

Answer: Resource ownership and control determine who can access natural resources and on what terms and conditions.

Explain the relationship between biodiversity and human activity as discussed in the textbook.

Answer: Biodiversity depletion caused by human activities for resource exploitation.

Discuss the influence of agricultural activity on water depletion.

Answer: Agriculture depletes groundwater rapidly due to intensive irrigation demands.

What is the impact of genetically modified organisms on agriculture and ecology?

Answer: Genetically modified organisms increase agricultural yield but may disrupt local ecosystems and biodiversity.

How do environmental crises reflect underlying social inequalities?

Answer: Environmental crises reflect social inequality as powerful groups can insulate themselves.

Discuss the relationship between economic development and environmental sustainability.

Answer: Economic development focused on exploitation has caused environmental degradation unsustainably.

Short Answer Type Questions

Chapter 3: Environment and Society – Short Answer Type Questions

Define global warming and its causes according to the reference book.

Answer: Global warming refers to the gradual increase in Earth’s average temperature due to greenhouse gases like CO2 and methane, trapping more heat in the atmosphere. It’s primarily caused by industrial activities and deforestation.

Mindmap to remember this answer:

  • Key terms: Global warming, greenhouse gases, CO2, methane.
  • Causes: Industrial activities, deforestation.
  • Effect: Trapping heat, increasing Earth’s temperature.
  • Visual: Earth warming up, factories emitting gases, trees being cut down.

What are the main causes of soil pollution as stated in the reference book?

Answer: The main causes of soil pollution include excessive use of chemical fertilisers and pesticides, industrial waste disposal, and deforestation. These practices contaminate and degrade soil quality.

Mindmap to remember this answer:

  • Keywords: Chemical fertilisers, pesticides, industrial waste, deforestation.
  • Impact: Contamination, degradation of soil.
  • Visuals: Factories, farms with heavy pesticide use, cleared forests.

Describe the concept of water pollution and its sources from the reference book.

Answer: Water pollution refers to the contamination of water bodies such as rivers, lakes, and oceans, which can adversely affect aquatic life and humans. The main sources of water pollution include industrial discharge, agricultural runoff containing pesticides and fertilisers, and urban runoff, which carries pollutants from cities.

Mindmap to remember this answer:

  • Definition: Contamination of water bodies.
  • Effects: Harms aquatic life and human health.
  • Sources:
    • Industrial: Discharge from factories.
    • Agricultural: Runoff with pesticides and fertilisers.
    • Urban: Runoff from cities.

What are the major effects of global warming as detailed in the reference book?

Answer: The major effects of global warming include melting of polar ice-caps causing rise in sea levels, submerging low-lying coastal areas, and disturbing the ecological balance. Climate change will also result in greater fluctuations and uncertainties in climates across the world.

Mindmap to remember this answer:

  • Polar ice melting
  • Sea level rise
  • Coastal areas submerged
  • Ecological imbalance
  • Erratic climate fluctuations
  • Uncertain weather patterns

Explain the different theories of city classification based on “Internal structure.”

Answer: Theories of city classification based on internal structure include models like concentric zone, sector, and multiple nuclei. Each theory explains how urban areas are organised and grow based on social, economic, and environmental factors.

Mindmap to remember this answer

  • Keywords: Concentric zone, sector model, multiple nuclei, city organisation
  • Data: Models explain urban organisation
  • Pointers:
    • Concentric zone: growth in rings
    • Sector: development along routes
    • Multiple nuclei: growth around centres

What is meant by renewable resources and list some examples?

Answer: Renewable resources are those that can be replenished naturally over time. Some examples are solar energy, wind energy, forests, water from rivers, and crops.

Mindmap to remember this answer:

    • Renewable
    • Can be replenished
  • Examples:
    • Solar energy
    • Wind energy
    • Forests
    • River water
    • Crops

How do social relationships with the environment change over time according to the textbook?

Answer: According to the textbook, social relationships with the environment change over time as human interventions increasingly have the power to permanently alter environments through activities like deforestation, damming of rivers, urbanisation, and industrialization.

Mindmap to remember this answer:

  • Social relationships with environment change
  • Due to human interventions
  • Activities like:
    • Deforestation
    • Damming rivers
    • Urbanisation
    • Industrialization
  • Can permanently alter environments

What impact does human intervention have on ecological features like aridity or flood-proneness?

Answer: Human interventions like deforestation in the upper catchment of a river can make the river more flood-prone. Climate change caused by global warming is another example of how human activity impacts ecological features like aridity or flood-proneness.

Mindmap to remember this answer:

  • Human interventions impact ecology
  • Examples:
    • Deforestation
      • Can make rivers flood-prone
    • Global warming/climate change
      • Affects aridity, flood situations

Discuss the role of social organisation in the interaction between environment and society.

Answer: Social organisation plays a crucial role in the interaction between environment and society. Property relations determine how and by whom natural resources can be used. The division of labour in production processes also influences how different social groups relate to the environment.

Mindmap to remember this answer:

  • Social organisation determines:
    • Property relations
      • Who uses natural resources
    • Division of labour
      • How different groups interact with environment
    • Example: Landless labourers vs landowners

How do property relations influence the use and management of natural resources?

Answer: Property relations determine who can use and control natural resources and on what terms. If forests are government-owned, the government decides whether to allow villagers to collect forest produce or lease forests to timber companies.

Mindmap to remember this answer:

  • Property relations determine:
      • Who uses natural resources
      • Terms/conditions of use
  • Examples:
    • Government owned forests
      • Villagers allowed
      • Leased to companies

Describe the effect of capitalism on environmental management and nature.

Answer: The values underlying capitalism have supported the commodification of nature, turning it into objects that can be bought and sold for profit. This has led to exploitation of natural resources and environmental degradation across the world.

Mindmap to remember this answer:

  • Capitalism’s effect:
      • Commodification of nature
      • Profit motive
      • Buy/sell natural resources
  • Consequences:
    • Exploitation of nature
    • Environmental degradation
    • Resource depletion

What challenges do industrial technologies and urbanisation pose to environmental management?

Answer: With the spread of industrialization and urbanisation, resource extraction has expanded rapidly, affecting ecosystems in unprecedented ways. Complex industrial technologies require sophisticated management systems which are often fragile and prone to errors that can have disastrous environmental consequences.

Mindmap to remember this answer:

  • Industrialization and urbanisation lead to:
      • Rapid resource extraction
      • Ecosystem disruption
  • Challenges:
    • Complex industrial technologies
    • Fragile management systems
    • Prone to errors/disasters
    • Examples: Bhopal, Chernobyl

Analyse the societal implications of the Bhopal disaster as outlined in the textbook.

Answer: The Bhopal disaster highlights how environmental crises often have roots in social inequality. Safety guidelines were ignored due to the company’s cosy relations with powerful politicians and bureaucrats, while the poor community around the plant bore the deadly consequences.

Mindmap to remember this answer:

    • Environmental crises rooted in social inequality
  • Bhopal disaster:
    • Company-politician nexus ignored safety
    • Poor community suffered deaths/disabilities
    • Highlights unequal impact on underprivileged

Explain the concept of sustainable development as described in the textbook.

Answer: Sustainable development is development that meets the present needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. It focuses on the essential needs of the world’s poor while considering the limitations imposed by technology and social organisation on the environment’s ability to meet present and future needs.

Mindmap to remember this answer:

  • Sustainable development
    • Meets present needs
    • Without compromising future needs
  • Focuses on:
    • Essential needs of the poor
    • Limitations of technology/social organisation
      • On meeting environmental needs

Discuss the challenges and risks of genetically modified organisms as mentioned in the textbook.

Answer: The textbook highlights that little is known about the long-term effects of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) on those consuming GM foods or on ecological systems. The risks include agricultural companies using GM technology to create sterile seeds, forcing farmers to remain dependent on them.

Mindmap to remember this answer:

  • GMO Risks/Challenges
    • Unknown long-term effects
      • On consumers of GM foods
      • On ecological systems
    • Sterile GM seeds
      • Farmers forced to depend on companies

What are the implications of global warming on biodiversity and natural resources?

Answer: Global warming is projected to melt polar ice-fields, rising sea levels and submerging low-lying coastal areas. More importantly, it will affect the overall ecological balance and biodiversity, potentially leading to loss of species habitats and endangering many species.

Mindmap to remember this answer:

  • Global warming implications
    • Melting polar ice
    • Sea level rise
    • Coastal areas submerged
    • Disturbs ecological balance
    • Loss of biodiversity
    • Species endangered

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Long Answer Type Questions

Chapter 3: Environment and Society – Long Answer Type Questions

Discuss the interdependence of human society and the environment, highlighting three aspects of human ecology as seen in contemporary society.

Answer: Human society and the environment are deeply interdependent, with this relationship manifesting in several aspects of contemporary human ecology.
Firstly, the use of natural resources underlines this interdependence; everything from the materials used in daily life to the energy powering our homes is derived from nature.
Secondly, the impact of human activities on the environment, such as pollution and deforestation, reflects how societal behaviours directly affect ecological health and, subsequently, our own well-being.
Lastly, the concept of sustainable development highlights an acknowledgment of this interdependence, aiming to balance human needs with the preservation of environmental health for future generations. These interactions remind us that our societal choices have profound ecological consequences, necessitating responsible and sustainable practices to ensure the health of both human and ecological systems.

Mindmap to remember this answer:

  • Natural Resource Use: Daily materials and energy, source and impact.
  • Human Impact: Pollution, deforestation, direct ecological effects.
  • Sustainable Development: Balance human needs, preserve future ecological health.
  • Interdependence: Every choice affects ecological and human health.
  • Examples: Material use in daily life, effects of pollution, sustainable practices.

Analyse how environmental problems are also social problems by exploring their impacts on different societal groups and the resulting social disparities.

Answer: Environmental issues are not just natural concerns; they are profoundly social, influencing various societal groups unevenly, leading to significant disparities.
For instance, in rural areas, where environmental degradation like deforestation and water scarcity occurs, the poor, who rely heavily on natural resources, suffer disproportionately. This contrasts sharply with urban settings, where wealthier groups might mitigate their environmental risks through technology and infrastructure.
Furthermore, industrial pollution disproportionately affects lower-income neighbourhoods, often situated near polluting factories, leading to health problems that compound their social and economic disadvantages.
Thus, environmental problems intensify existing social inequalities, making them not only ecological crises but also serious social issues requiring integrated socio-environmental approaches for resolution.

Mindmap to remember this answer:

  • Urban vs. Rural Disparity: Access to resources, impact of pollution.
  • Social Inequality: Poor suffer more from environmental degradation.
  • Health Impacts: Lower-income areas face higher pollution.
  • Integrated Approach: Solutions need socio-environmental consideration.
  • Examples: Deforestation impacts, industrial pollution, water scarcity.

Elaborate on the concept of Sustainable Development and discuss the challenges and strategies for achieving it in the context of environmental and economic factors.

Answer: Sustainable Development is a critical approach aimed at addressing the needs of the present without compromising future generations’ ability to meet their own needs. It involves balancing economic growth with environmental protection and ensuring equitable resource distribution.
The challenges to achieving Sustainable Development include economic pressures that favour immediate profits over long-term sustainability, environmental degradation, and social inequalities that limit access to resources for the underprivileged.
Strategies to overcome these challenges include implementing green technologies, enforcing environmental regulations, and promoting economic policies that incorporate environmental costs. It also involves educating communities about sustainable practices and fostering international cooperation to address global environmental issues.

Mindmap to remember this answer:

  • Concept: Meeting today’s needs without harming future prospects.
  • Challenges: Economic short-termism, environmental degradation, social inequalities.
  • Strategies: Green technology, strict regulations, sustainable economic policies.
  • Education and Awareness: Community involvement and global cooperation.
  • Examples: Green technologies, international treaties like the Paris Agreement.

Describe the complex relationships between the production and consumption of goods and the depletion of natural resources, using examples from everyday objects found in a classroom.

Answer: In our classroom, the objects we use daily, like chairs, desks, and even the electricity that powers the ceiling fans, all originate from natural resources. Take the chair, for example; it’s likely made of wood, derived from trees. The production process for a single chair involves cutting down trees, which depletes forest resources.
This also requires energy, mostly sourced from non-renewable resources like coal or oil, leading to further depletion of natural reserves. As students, we don’t often think about these processes, but every item we use has a backstory that connects it to the natural environment.
This relationship between the production and consumption of goods and the depletion of natural resources shows the complex interdependencies in our world.
By understanding where our classroom items come from, we can start to appreciate the broader environmental impacts of our daily choices. Recognising these connections is the first step towards adopting more sustainable practices, like recycling or choosing products that are made with sustainable methods.

Mindmap to remember this answer:

  • Classroom Items: Chairs, desks, electricity
  • Resources Used: Wood (trees), metal, coal, oil
  • Processes Involved: Logging, manufacturing, energy consumption
  • Environmental Impact: Depletion of forests, consumption of fossil fuels
  • Student Actions: Awareness of sources, choosing sustainable products, recycling
  • Broader Impact: Understanding of ecological footprints, promoting sustainability

Examine how the geographical and ecological characteristics of a place shape the social and cultural life of its inhabitants, with examples from desert and floodplain environments.

Answer: The geographical and ecological characteristics of a place significantly shape the social and cultural life of its inhabitants. In desert environments, the scarcity of water and extreme temperatures limit the possibilities for agriculture and settlement. Inhabitants often lead a nomadic or semi-nomadic lifestyle, moving with their livestock in search of grazing lands.
Social organisation revolves around kinship and tribal affiliations. In contrast, floodplain environments with their fertile soils and abundant water support intensive agriculture and dense populations.
Complex hierarchical societies emerge, with the production of agricultural surpluses supporting the growth of cities, industry and cultural activities.
For example, in the desert of Rajasthan, the Bishnoi community has developed a strong culture of ecological conservation, based on their spiritual belief in the sanctity of all life forms.
They protect wildlife and have a long tradition of husbanding scarce resources like water and pasture. The Nile river floodplain, on the other hand, enabled ancient Egyptians to generate agricultural surpluses that supported a highly stratified society with monumental architecture and a powerful state structure.
Thus, the interaction between environment and society shapes cultures and lifestyles in diverse and profound ways.

Mindmap to remember this answer:

  • Geographical and ecological characteristics shape social and cultural life
  • Desert environments
        • Scarcity of water and extreme temperatures
        • Nomadic or semi-nomadic lifestyle
        • Kinship and tribal affiliations
        • Example: Bishnoi community in Rajasthan
  • Floodplain environments
        • Fertile soils and abundant water
        • Intensive agriculture and dense populations
        • Complex hierarchical societies
        • Cities, industry, cultural activities
        • Example: Ancient Egypt and the Nile floodplain
  • Interaction between environment and society shapes diverse cultures and lifestyles

Critically analyse the impact of human interventions on natural ecosystems, such as deforestation and urban development, and their long-term effects on local and global environments.

Answer: Human interventions, such as deforestation and urban development, have significant long-term effects on both local and global environments. Deforestation, for example, leads to habitat loss, decreased biodiversity, and the disruption of water cycles, which can cause more frequent and severe flooding and droughts.
Urban development often leads to increased pollution and waste, as well as higher energy consumption, contributing to global warming and climate change. Additionally, these interventions affect the earth’s ability to naturally regulate air and water quality, and climate patterns.
For instance, trees not only absorb CO2 but also help to cool the planet, so removing them contributes to rising global temperatures. In urban areas, replacing natural landscapes with concrete increases surface temperatures, leading to the urban heat island effect.
Over time, these changes can lead to more extreme weather conditions, affecting agriculture, wildlife, and human health.
As a student observing these impacts, I realise the importance of sustainable practices and conservation efforts to mitigate these effects and protect our environment for future generations.

Mindmap to remember this answer:

  • Key Interventions: Deforestation, Urban development
  • Local Effects: Habitat loss, pollution, increased waste
  • Global Effects: Climate change, global warming
  • Biological Impact: Decreased biodiversity, altered wildlife habitats
  • Hydrological Changes: Disrupted water cycles, increased flooding and droughts
  • Atmospheric Changes: Increased CO2 levels, contribution to urban heat island effect
  • Long-term Consequences: Extreme weather, impacts on agriculture and health
  • Sustainable Practices: Importance of conservation, sustainable urban planning, and reforestation

Discuss the role of property relations and social organisation in shaping the use and management of natural resources, focusing on examples from forestry and agriculture.

Answer: The management and use of natural resources like forests and agricultural lands are deeply influenced by property relations and social organisation. In forestry, if the government owns the forests, it may choose to lease these to commercial timber companies or permit local communities to use them sustainably.
For example, government ownership without proper regulation can lead to overexploitation or restrict local communities’ access, affecting both the environment and local livelihoods.
In agriculture, private ownership of land allows landowners to decide on the usage of their land and the agricultural practices they employ. This can lead to intensive farming practices that may degrade the soil and deplete water resources if not managed sustainably. Conversely, communal land ownership often involves shared responsibilities and benefits, which can encourage sustainable practices and conservation of resources.
Overall, the way property is owned and managed can either promote sustainability and equity or lead to exploitation and environmental degradation, depending on the underlying social structures and policies.

Mindmap to remember this answer:

  • Key Concepts: Property relations, social organisation
  • Forestry: Government vs. private ownership, community access, sustainability
  • Agriculture: Private land use, intensive farming, communal ownership
  • Impact: Sustainability, environmental degradation, local livelihoods
  • Examples: Timber leasing, intensive farming practices
  • Social Structures: Influence on resource management, equity in resource distribution

Explore the various perspectives on the relationship between the environment and society, including how different social values and norms influence environmental policies and practices.

Answer: The relationship between society and the environment is shaped significantly by varying social values and norms, which directly influence environmental policies and practices.
For instance, in societies where economic growth is highly valued, there might be less emphasis on environmental conservation, leading to policies that favour industrial expansion even at the cost of ecological degradation. This can be seen in deforestation for agriculture or urban development without sustainable checks.
Conversely, societies that hold ecological sustainability as a core value may implement stricter environmental protections, promote renewable energy, and enforce regulations that ensure minimal harm to the environment. An example of this is the use of environmental impact assessments before approving construction projects.
Furthermore, cultural values also play a crucial role; for example, some indigenous communities view natural elements as sacred, which influences their environmental practices to be more conservation-oriented.
These communities often have traditional practices that include sustainable land and water management, which can teach broader society about sustainability.
This variety of perspectives shows that our relationship with the environment is not just about physical interactions but is deeply entwined with our cultural, economic, and ethical beliefs.

Mindmap to remember this answer:

  • Social Values and Environment: How societal priorities influence policies
  • Economic Growth vs. Conservation: Balance between development and environmental protection
  • Cultural Influence: Indigenous practices, viewing nature as sacred
  • Policy Implementation: Environmental impact assessments, renewable energy promotion
  • Examples: Deforestation for agriculture, sustainable land management by indigenous communities
  • Ethical Beliefs and Environment: Ethical considerations in environmental management
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Explore the role of international frameworks and goals, such as the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals, in addressing global environmental challenges and promoting sustainable practices.

Answer: International frameworks like the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) play a crucial role in addressing global environmental challenges and promoting sustainable practices. These goals provide a structured agenda to tackle urgent issues such as climate change, water scarcity, and loss of biodiversity. For instance, specific goals focus on clean water and sanitation, affordable and clean energy, and climate action, which are directly related to environmental sustainability.
The SDGs encourage countries to adopt environmentally friendly policies and foster innovation that aids in sustainability.
This collaborative approach not only aims to mitigate environmental degradation but also promotes equity, as these goals recognize the interconnectedness of the environment, economy, and social well-being.
The global nature of the SDGs helps in pooling resources, knowledge, and technologies, making it possible to achieve a greater impact than individual countries working alone.
Through these goals, the UN aims to ensure that all people enjoy peace and prosperity while protecting the planet. The framework’s strength lies in its comprehensive approach, which acknowledges that challenges like global warming and resource depletion need coordinated global action to be effectively addressed.

Mindmap to remember this answer:

  • Key Focus: Climate action, clean energy, water sanitation
  • Goals: Structured targets, global cooperation
  • Impact: Mitigation of environmental degradation, promotion of equity
  • Strategy: Adoption of eco-friendly policies, innovation
  • Outcome: Peace, prosperity, planet protection
  • Approach: Comprehensive, coordinated action

Discuss the evolution of environmental knowledge and practices in the context of historical events like colonialism and its impact on resource management disciplines such as geology and forestry.

Answer: The evolution of environmental knowledge and practices has been deeply influenced by historical events such as colonialism, which fundamentally altered resource management disciplines like geology and forestry. Colonial powers exploited natural resources in colonised lands, often leading to environmental degradation. This exploitation necessitated the development of systematic resource management practices to maximise extraction and profit. Consequently, disciplines such as geology and forestry were formalised to better understand and control natural resources. These sciences were used to map, quantify, and manage the colonies’ resources more effectively, often prioritising extraction over ecological stability. This approach has had lasting impacts, as many post-colonial nations continue to struggle with the consequences of unsustainable management practices established during colonial times. Today, the challenge is to adapt these disciplines to support sustainable development that respects both ecological balance and the needs of local communities.

Mindmap to remember this answer:

  • Historical Context: Colonialism’s resource exploitation
  • Disciplines Affected: Geology, forestry
  • Purpose: Maximise extraction, profit
  • Methods: Mapping, quantification, management
  • Impact: Environmental degradation, unsustainable practices

Current Challenge: Adapting to sustainable development, respecting ecological balance

Sample Questions Paper

Chapter 3: Environment and Society – Sample Questions Paper

Time allowed: 2 hours Maximum Marks: 40

General Instructions:
(i) The question paper contains 14 questions.
(ii) All questions are compulsory.
(iii) Section A Question numbers 1 and 2 are 1 mark source-based questions. Answers to these questions must not exceed 10-15 words.
(iv) Section B Question numbers 3 to 9 are 2 marks questions. These are very short-answer type questions. Answers to these questions should not exceed 30 words.
(v) Section C Question numbers 10 to 12 are 4 marks questions. These are short-answer type questions. Answers to these questions should not exceed 80 words. (vi) Section D Question numbers 13 and 14 are 6 marks questions. These are long-answer type questions. Answers to these questions should not exceed 200 words.

Section A

  1. How is water depleted through agricultural activity? (1 Mark)
  2. Cities are witnessing conflicts over urban spaces. Why? (1 Mark)

Section B

  1. What does the author mean by ecology? (2 Marks)
  2. How does social organisation influence environment-society relations? (2 Marks)
  3. What are the major sources of water pollution? (2 Marks)
  4. What is genetic modification of organisms? (2 Marks)
  5. Give two major reasons for depletion of resources like water and land. (2 Marks)
  6. What is the difference between formal and informal education? (2 Marks)
  7. Mention any two environmental disasters, one natural and one man-made. (2 Marks)

Section C

  1. Analyse how the environment and society shape each other with examples. (4 Marks)
    How do different social values and norms influence the environment? Explain with examples. (4 Marks)
  2. Discuss the causes and effects of global warming. (4 Marks)
    What are the potential risks associated with genetically modified organisms? (4 Marks)
  3. Examine how unequal social relations contribute to environmental crises with suitable examples. (4 Marks)
    Why are environmental problems also social problems? Explain with illustrations. (4 Marks)

Section D

Q.What is sustainable development? Discuss the key concepts and importance of sustainable development in today’s world. (6 Marks)

How can education play a role in promoting sustainable development? Explain with examples. (6 Marks)

Q.Read the given passage carefully and analyse the relationship between environment and social inequality with reference to the school of social ecology. (6 Marks)
“The dominant social section not only dominates political and economic institutions but also ensures that the ruling class ideas become the ruling ideas of a society”. Examine the statement in the context of environmental crises. (6 Marks)

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