Chapter 5: Doing Sociology: Research Methods – CBSE NCERT Sociology Class 11 Notes

Class 11 Sociology Notes for Chapter 5: Doing Sociology: Research Methods
Get Class 11 Sociology Notes, Questions and Practice Papers for Chapter 5: Doing Sociology: Research Methods . Candidates who want to pass Class 11 with a good grade can use this article for Notes, Questions, and Practice Papers. We have provided a link below to access the Class 11 Sociology Notes, Important Questions and Practice Paper on the topic Sociology and Society. You can practise the questions and check your answers using the solutions provided after each question.


Chapter Definitions and Short Notes

Chapter 5: Doing Sociology: Research Methods – Short Notes and Definitions

The Role of Method in Sociology as a Social Science

Sociology, often recognized as a social science, examines familiar societal elements like social groups, institutions, and norms. What sets sociologists apart as social scientists is not merely their knowledge but how they acquire it. The key to sociology’s distinction lies in its methodological approach to gathering knowledge.
Sociologists employ specific scientific procedures to study both observable social phenomena and the personal experiences, opinions, and feelings of individuals. This dual perspective, understanding both the outsider’s view and the insider’s lived experiences, underscores the significance of method in sociology.

Short Pointers:

  • Sociology’s Subject Matter: Involves familiar aspects like social groups, norms, and relationships.
  • Scientific Distinction: Not what sociologists know, but how they gather knowledge sets them apart.
  • Importance of Method: Key element in sociology; involves precise, scientific procedures to understand society.
  • Dual Perspectives: Sociologists study observable behaviours and personal experiences to gain a complete understanding.
  • Understanding Lived Experiences: Sociologists seek to understand the meaning of social phenomena from the perspectives of those involved.

Understanding Methodology in Sociology

In sociology, the term ‘methodology’ is often mistakenly used interchangeably with ‘method’. However, methodology specifically refers to the study of methods themselves. It involves exploring the broader issues and challenges associated with scientific knowledge-gathering that transcend any specific method, technique, or procedure. This includes examining how sociologists aim to produce knowledge that is scientifically valid and reliable.

Short Pointers:

  • Method vs. Methodology: Methodology is not just another word for method; it studies the principles behind methods.
  • Scope of Methodology: Concerns the broader issues in the scientific process of gathering knowledge.
  • Scientific Knowledge: Methodology examines how knowledge that claims scientific validity is produced in sociology.
  • Beyond Techniques: Looks at general problems rather than specific techniques or procedures in research.

Objectivity and Subjectivity in Sociology

In sociology, objectivity refers to the unbiased and fact-based study of social phenomena, where sociologists strive to set aside personal feelings and attitudes. Conversely, subjectivity encompasses views influenced by individual values and preferences.
Achieving objectivity is challenging in sociology because sociologists, as members of society, naturally possess biases shaped by their own experiences and social contexts.
Techniques like self-reflexivity, where sociologists critically analyse their own perspectives, and rigorous documentation of research processes are employed to enhance objectivity.
Despite efforts, complete objectivity is elusive in sociology due to the inherently subjective nature of the social world, which features multiple truths and perspectives. The discipline acknowledges the complexity of objectivity and views it as an ongoing process rather than an absolute state.

Short Pointers:

  • Objectivity: Striving for unbiased knowledge based on facts, minimising personal biases.
  • Subjectivity: Influence of individual values and experiences on one’s perception and analysis.
  • Challenges in Sociology: Sociologists’ personal biases can affect studies due to their membership in society.
  • Techniques for Objectivity: Self-reflexivity (critical self-examination) and thorough documentation to ensure transparency.
  • Inherent Subjectivity: Acknowledging multiple perspectives and truths in the social world, making absolute objectivity challenging.
  • Continuous Process: Objectivity is seen not as a fixed goal but as an ongoing effort in sociological research.

Multiple Methods and Choice of Methods in Sociology

In sociology, the existence of multiple truths and perspectives naturally leads to the use of multiple methods. Since there is no single way to achieve sociological truth, the choice of method depends largely on the research question at hand.
Different methods have unique strengths and weaknesses, making it inappropriate to argue about their relative merits. Instead, the focus should be on selecting the most suitable method for the specific question being investigated.
Sociological methods can be categorised in various ways: quantitative versus qualitative, methods that use primary versus secondary data, and micro versus macro methods. The use of multiple methods, or triangulation, is encouraged to approach a research problem from different angles, enhancing the comprehensiveness and accuracy of the findings.

Short Pointers:

  • Multiple Methods: Reflects the variety of truths and perspectives in sociology.
  • Suitability of Methods: Choice depends on the specific research question.
  • Method Strengths and Weaknesses: Each method has unique advantages and limitations.
  • Method Categories:
    • Quantitative vs. Qualitative: Quantitative methods focus on measurable data, while qualitative methods explore deeper, often unmeasurable aspects like emotions and attitudes.
    • Primary vs. Secondary Data: Primary data methods generate new data, whereas secondary data methods use existing data.
    • Micro vs. Macro Methods: Micro methods suit small-scale studies, macro methods are for large-scale research.
  • Triangulation: Using multiple methods to study the same problem enhances reliability and depth of research.

Participant Observation in Sociology and Social Anthropology

Participant observation is a key research method used in sociology and social anthropology for gathering primary data through direct engagement. Unlike methods such as surveys or interviews that can be conducted over shorter periods, participant observation requires the researcher to live among the people being studied for an extended time, often up to a year or more.
This method allows the researcher to immerse themselves in the community’s culture by learning their language and participating in daily activities, thus gaining a deep understanding of their way of life.
The objective is to absorb both the explicit and implicit knowledge of the community, similar to how a child learns about the world. This in-depth, immersive approach helps sociologists and anthropologists learn about the holistic way of life of the people they study.

Short Pointers:

  • Primary Data Collection: Involves gathering data by directly interacting with the study subjects over long periods.
  • Deep Immersion: Researchers live as a member of the community, engaging deeply with their customs and daily life.
  • Learning Approach: Similar to a child’s learning process, aiming to understand all aspects of the community’s way of life.
  • Holistic Understanding: Focuses on a comprehensive understanding of the community’s culture and practices.
  • Difference from Other Methods: Unlike short-term studies like surveys, participant observation demands prolonged engagement and personal involvement in the community.

Field Work in Social Anthropology

Field work is a cornerstone scientific method in social anthropology that has greatly contributed to its establishment as a social science. Initially, anthropologists were “armchair scholars” who relied on secondhand accounts from various sources to study distant cultures.
However, by the late 19th and early 20th centuries, a shift occurred towards firsthand observation and systematic surveys.
This method involves living within a community for extended periods, typically starting with conducting a census to gather detailed demographic data. Additionally, creating genealogies of the community members helps anthropologists understand kinship systems and social structures.
Participant observation, as this method is often called, allows anthropologists to immerse themselves in the community’s daily life, learning their language, observing their customs, and documenting everything rigorously through detailed field notes or a diary.

Short Pointers:

  • Evolution of Field Work: Transitioned from reliance on secondhand accounts to direct observation and systematic surveys.
  • Primary Activities: Conducting community censuses, mapping settlements, and creating detailed genealogies.
  • Deep Immersion: Living among the community to observe and participate in everyday life.
  • Understanding Kinship and Social Structure: Using genealogies to understand relationships and roles within the community.
  • Continuous Documentation: Maintaining detailed field notes or a daily diary to record observations.
  • Role of Informants: Relying on key community members (informants) for in-depth information and insights into the community.

Bronislaw Malinowski and the Establishment of Field Work in Social Anthropology

Bronislaw Malinowski, a Polish anthropologist based in Britain, played a pivotal role in establishing field work as the definitive method of social anthropology. In 1914, during World War I, while Malinowski was in Australia, he became an ‘enemy alien’ due to Poland’s annexation by Germany. Instead of traditional internment, he negotiated to conduct his anthropological research in the Trobriand Islands, part of the British-Australian territory in the South Pacific.
Over a year and a half, Malinowski immersed himself in the local culture, learned the language, lived among the people, and meticulously documented his observations and daily experiences. His fieldwork in the Trobriand Islands led to classic anthropological texts, setting a new standard for anthropological research and training.

Short Pointers:

  • Innovative Field Work: Malinowski’s work in the Trobriand Islands is a landmark in anthropological field work.
  • Immersive Research: He lived in native villages, learned the local language, and closely interacted with the community.
  • Detailed Documentation: Kept rigorous records and a daily diary that formed the basis of his later famous publications.
  • Impact on Anthropology: His experiences and methods transformed anthropology into a rigorous scientific discipline, advocating for direct and unmediated observation of native cultures.
  • Institutional Change: Influenced the integration of field work into the curriculum of anthropology training, advocating against the use of interpreters and for direct engagement with the study subjects.

Please log in to view this content.

NCERT Solutions

NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Sociology – Chapter 5: Doing Sociology: Research Methods

Why is the question of a scientific method particularly important in sociology?

Answer: The question of a scientific method is especially important in sociology because it is relatively harder for sociology to be objective, factual and verifiable compared to the physical sciences.
As a social science, sociology needs to use scientific methods to uncover social facts. Sociologists have developed various scientific approaches to study society, just like the physical and natural sciences have.
Since sociology is a scientific discipline, the key aspect is the method used to arrive at facts. For sociologists, what’s most important is not how much they know or what they know, but rather how they come to know it. How do they uncover facts?
Sociologists figure out facts through research, using various techniques and tools. Research is the goal, and method is the means for sociologists to achieve that goal.
Social research tries to discover social facts, study cause and effect relationships, and make predictions within certain limits wherever possible.
Therefore, using scientific methodology is crucial in sociology as a scientific discipline. The use of the scientific method enables sociology to be objective and gain credibility.

Mindmap to remember this answer:

  • Sociology harder to be objective vs physical sciences
  • Use of scientific methods needed to study social facts
  • Sociology = scientific discipline, method is key
  • How facts uncovered more important than what is known
  • Research uses techniques/tools to arrive at facts
  • Research goal to discover facts, causes/effects, predictions
  • Scientific methodology crucial for sociology’s credibility

What are some of the reasons for ‘objectivity’ being more complicated in social sciences, particularly disciplines like sociology?

Answer: There are a few key reasons why achieving objectivity is more complex in social sciences like sociology compared to natural sciences.
First, sociologists themselves are part of the society they are studying. As members of society, they naturally have their own biases, values, attitudes and experiences that can influence their perspective. It’s difficult for them to completely detach from these when analysing social phenomena.
Additionally, the subject matter of sociology – social realities – are very complex and multi-dimensional. Social facts and structures are abstract and not easily measurable by fixed, objective standards the way natural phenomena often are. There can be many competing viewpoints and experiences of the same social reality.
So the personal position of the researcher and the nature of what is being studied makes pure, absolute objectivity an impossible ideal in sociology. However, sociologists still strive for objectivity as much as possible through techniques like reflexivity – constant self-awareness and examination of one’s own biases. Making their own background and potential biases clear also helps.
The existence of multiple paradigms and perspectives within sociology itself also complicates objectivity. There is no one unanimous theoretical viewpoint. All of these factors together explain why objectivity is a more difficult goal in a field like sociology compared to natural sciences.

Mindmap to remember this answer:

  • Sociologist part of society being studied
  • Has own biases, attitudes, experiences
  • Hard to fully detach from these
  • Social realities very complex, multi-dimensional
  • Social facts abstract, not easily measurable
  • Many viewpoints on same social phenomenon
  • Researcher’s position + nature of subject = objectivity impossible
  • Techniques like reflexivity, acknowledging own biases help
  • Multiple paradigms within sociology also complicates objectivity
  • These factors together make objectivity uniquely difficult vs natural sciences

How do sociologists try to deal with difficulties in “objectivity” and strive for objectivity?

Answer: Sociologists use a few key techniques to deal with the difficulties in achieving objectivity and strive to be as objective as possible in their research.
One important method is to rigorously and continuously examine one’s own ideas, beliefs, and biases about the topic being studied. The sociologist tries to take an outsider’s perspective on their own work, looking at themselves and their research through the eyes of others. This practice is called reflexivity.
By constantly subjecting their own attitudes and opinions to self-examination and consciously adopting the point of view of others, especially their research subjects, sociologists aim to minimise personal biases. Careful documentation of all research procedures and formal citation of all evidence sources also helps others retrace the steps and logic of the sociologist’s conclusions.
Since there is always a possibility of unconscious bias, sociologists make it a point to explicitly mention any aspects of their own background that could potentially bias their perspective on the topic. This alerts readers to interpret the research with that context in mind.
Another key practice is to base all sociological analysis on “what is” rather than “what should be.” Sociologists rely on objective facts gathered through systematic research and scientific methods like surveys, case studies, and statistical analysis. They focus on the reality that exists, not imaginary ideals.
Though perfect value-neutrality is impossible, sociologists strive for objectivity through rigorous self-reflection, transparency about their position, grounding analysis in empirical evidence gathered scientifically, and constantly examining findings from different angles. The goal is to minimise bias as much as humanly possible.

Mindmap to remember this answer:

  • Continuous self-examination of own ideas, beliefs, biases
  • Take outsider’s perspective on own work
  • Practise reflexivity – consider others’ viewpoints
  • Careful documentation & citation of procedures, evidence
  • Explicitly mention own background as potential bias
  • Base analysis on objective facts, “what is” not “what should be”
  • Use scientific research methods – surveys, case studies, statistics
  • Focus on empirical reality, not imaginary ideals
  • Transparency, evidence-based, examine from different angles
  • Goal to minimise inevitable bias as much as humanly possible

What is meant by ‘reflexivity’ and why is it important in sociology?

Answer: Reflexivity refers to the sociologist’s practice of continually examining their own ideas, beliefs, and feelings about the subject they are researching. It involves the researcher trying to take an outsider’s perspective on their own work, looking at themselves and their study through the eyes of others.
This is important in sociology because the sociologist, being a part of the society they are studying, naturally has their own biases and experiences that can influence their perspective. By practising reflexivity – constantly subjecting their own attitudes and opinions to self-examination and consciously adopting the viewpoint of others, especially their research subjects – the sociologist aims to minimise personal bias.
One practical aspect of reflexivity is carefully documenting all research procedures and citing all evidence sources. This allows others to retrace the steps and logic that led to a particular conclusion and verify it for themselves. It also helps the researcher double-check their own reasoning and arguments.
Reflexivity was considered a key technique by ethnomethodologists like Harold Garfinkel for uncovering how our sense of social order is created through our interactions and conversations with others. Though we tend to think of social order as something that objectively exists around us, reflexivity reveals how we actively construct it ourselves.
So in summary, reflexivity is a crucial tool that enables the sociologist to be vigilantly aware of their own potential biases, make their research process transparent, and gain a more valid understanding of social realities. It is a core practice for striving towards objectivity.

Mindmap to remember this answer:

  • Reflexivity = sociologist examining own ideas, beliefs, feelings
  • Taking outsider’s view of own work
  • Important because sociologist part of society being studied
  • Has own biases, experiences that can influence perspective
  • Reflexivity helps minimise personal bias
  • Involves constant self-examination of attitudes, opinions
  • Adopting the viewpoint of others, esp. research subjects
  • Practical aspect: documenting procedures, citing sources
  • Allows others to verify conclusions
  • Helps researcher double-check own reasoning
  • Key ethnomethodologist technique (Garfinkel)
  • Shows how social order is constructed through interaction
  • Not just objective external reality
  • Crucial for sociologist to be aware of own biases
  • Makes research process transparent
  • Enables more valid understanding of social realities
  • Core practice for striving towards objectivity

What are some of the things that ethnographers and sociologists do during participant observation?

Answer: Ethnography usually refers to the acts of directly observing the behaviour of a social group and then producing a written account of it.
Ethnographers, particularly social anthropologists, do fieldwork where they engage in participant observation. Sociologists studying communities also frequently do fieldwork and case studies using participant observation.
In participant observation, the researcher spends an extended period of time, often a year or more, living among the people being studied. They learn the local language, follow the community’s customs and rituals, and participate in their daily activities and way of life.
By devoting so much time to being with a particular social group, the ethnographer becomes an insider and learns about the whole culture in a holistic manner, similar to how a child learns.

Key activities ethnographers undertake include:

  • Conducting a census to get detailed data on the community’s demographics
  • Mapping the physical layout of the village or settlement
  • Constructing genealogies to understand kinship systems and
    social relations
  • Constantly learning the local language
  • Observing and taking detailed notes on all aspects of community life
  • Studying key cultural elements like festivals, rituals, livelihoods, family relations, child-rearing practices, etc.
  • Asking numerous questions to understand things that are taken for granted by locals
  • Relying on key informants as crucial guides and teachers
  • Writing up comprehensive field notes and a daily diary

While anthropologists traditionally studied remote tribal communities, sociologists do fieldwork among all types of communities. Sociological fieldwork also does not always involve actually residing within the community, but does require spending extensive time with community members. The emphasis may also differ based on the research questions.

Mindmap to remember this answer:

  • Ethnography = directly observing social group + writing about it
  • Done by ethnographers (anthropologists), sociologists
  • Involves fieldwork, participant observation
  • Researcher lives with community for extended time (year+)
  • Becomes insider, learns culture holistically like a child
  • Key activities:
  • Census for demographic data
  • Mapping physical layout
  • Genealogies to understand kinship
  • Learning local language
  • Observing, taking detailed notes
  • Studying key cultural elements – festivals, rituals, livelihoods, families, etc.
  • Asking many questions
  • Relying on key informants as guides
  • Writing comprehensive field notes, diary
  • Anthropologists traditionally studied remote tribes
  • Sociologists study all community types
  • May not always reside within community
  • But still spend extensive time with members
  • Emphasis based on research questions

What are the strengths and weaknesses of participant observation as a method?

Answer: Participant observation is a method where the researcher lives in the group they are studying as an active member to collect information. There are both strengths and weaknesses to this approach.

Some key strengths are:

  • It provides firsthand information by allowing the researcher to directly observe people’s real behaviour in a natural setting.
  • The researcher can do an in-depth, comprehensive study by participating in the group’s activities over a long period of time. This helps them understand the group’s internal values.
  • The information can be re-examined and verified if the researcher has doubts, since they are right there observing things directly.

However, there are also some important weaknesses:

  • The researcher needs a high level of expertise to remain objective. Since they become a member of the group, it’s possible for their own individual biases to influence the observations.
  • It is very time consuming, as the researcher has to spend a long time building relationships with the group members and waiting for relevant events to observe.
  • It is an expensive method due to the extensive time and expertise required.

So in summary, participant observation provides rich, firsthand data but requires highly skilled researchers and a major investment of time and resources. The researcher also has to be careful to remain as objective as possible.

Mindmap to remember this answer:

  • Participant observation
      • Researcher lives in group, active member
      • Collects info firsthand
  • Strengths:
        • Direct, real behaviour observed
        • In-depth, comprehensive
        • Can verify info
  • Weaknesses:
        • High expertise needed
        • Time consuming
        • Expensive
  • Provides rich data but potential for bias

The key is highlighting the main strengths around direct observation and immersion providing in-depth understanding, balanced against the weaknesses of potential bias, time and cost required. Simplifying it into a visual map like this can aid in remembering the core concepts to expand upon in the full written answer.

Please log in to view this content.

MCQ Questions

Chapter 5: Doing Sociology: Research Methods – MCQ Questions


Very Short Answer Type Questions

Chapter 5: Doing Sociology: Research Methods – Very Short Answer Type Questions

What is the difference between a sociologist and a lay person according to the introductory text?

Answer: From personal perspective as student, sociologist differs from lay person in the method of acquiring knowledge.

Why is method considered crucial in sociology?

Answer: Method is crucial in sociology as it determines how knowledge is acquired, differentiating sociologists from lay persons.

How does sociology strive to understand the insider’s perspective in social phenomena?

Answer: Sociology tries to understand the insider’s perspective by adopting the point of view of those studied.

Define ‘methodology’ as it pertains to sociology.

Answer: Methodology in sociology refers to the study of methods for gathering scientific knowledge.

Explain the significance of objectivity and subjectivity in sociology.

Answer: Objectivity is difficult in sociology as sociologists study the social world they are part of, unlike natural sciences. Subjectivity arises from sociologists’ own biases, multiple perspectives on truth in society, and competing paradigms within sociology itself.

What challenges do sociologists face in maintaining objectivity?

Answer: Major challenges sociologists face in maintaining objectivity are their own biases as members of society, multiple perspectives on truth in society, and competing paradigms within sociology itself.

Discuss the concept of self-reflexivity in sociology.

Answer: Self-reflexivity is the technique where sociologists rigorously examine their own ideas, feelings, and potential biases about the research subject, adopting an outsider’s perspective on their own work.

What role does documentation play in sociological research?

Answer: Documentation allows others to retrace the steps taken by sociologists to arrive at their conclusions and verify the research process.

How do sociologists deal with the possibility of unconscious bias?

Answer: To deal with the possibility of unconscious bias, sociologists explicitly mention features of their own social background that may be relevant as potential sources of bias.

Why are multiple perspectives important in understanding social truths?

Answer: Multiple perspectives are important in sociology because there are many competing versions or interpretations of social reality.

Explain the term “multi-paradigmatic” in the context of sociology.

Answer: In sociology, ‘multi-paradigmatic’ means competing and mutually incompatible schools of thought coexist within the discipline.

What is the importance of multiple methods in sociological research?

Answer: Multiple methods are important in sociology to bear on research problems from different perspectives, complementing each other for better results.

How does participant observation differ from other research methods?

Answer: Participant observation uniquely involves living within the community, immersing in their daily life for comprehensive, firsthand insights.

Describe the method of field work in social anthropology.

Answer: Field work in social anthropology involves living among people, learning their culture and languages, and collecting detailed, immersive data.

Discuss the impact of Bronislaw Malinowski on field work in social anthropology.

Answer: Malinowski established field work as the main method of anthropology by living with native communities.

What is the main distinction between sociological and anthropological field work?

Answer: Sociologists study diverse communities without necessarily living there, unlike anthropologists who immerse in remote cultures.

How does the field work approach differ in various sociological contexts?

Answer: In sociology, field work varies widely, from surveys in urban areas to immersive studies in rural communities.

Describe the village studies trend in Indian sociology during the 1950s and 1960s.

Answer: During the 1950s and 1960s, Indian sociologists focused on village studies, emphasising rural life and societal dynamics.

What are the limitations of participant observation in sociological research?

Answer: Participant observation’s limitations include potential biases, limited scope, and sometimes unclear distinctions between observer and observed insights.

Explain the survey method and its importance in sociological studies.

Answer: Surveys allow broad, generalizable insights from a sample, representing a larger population efficiently and effectively.

How do sociologists ensure that a sample is representative in a survey?

Answer: Sociologists ensure samples are representative by using stratification and randomization to reflect diverse population segments.

Discuss the challenges and limitations of the survey method.

Answer: Surveys may lack depth, pose bias risks, and vary in accuracy based on the questionnaire’s design.

What is an interview in the context of sociological research?

Answer: An interview is a flexible guided conversation between a researcher and a respondent in sociological research.

How do the recording and presentation of interviews vary in sociological studies?

Answer: Interviews can be recorded differently, like audio/video, notes, or memory, and presented as transcripts or narratives.

What role does triangulation play in sociological research methods?

Answer: Triangulation in sociology uses multiple methods to validate results and enhance understanding.


Short Answer Type Questions

Chapter 5: Doing Sociology: Research Methods – Short Answer Type Questions

What distinguishes a sociologist as a social scientist?

Answer: A sociologist is distinguished as a social scientist by the scientific methods they use to acquire knowledge about society. Unlike lay persons, sociologists follow rigorous procedures to gather and analyse data in an objective manner, even when studying familiar aspects of social life.

Mindmap to remember this answer:

  • Sociologist as social scientist
  • Differs from lay persons
  • Not in how much or what they know
  • But in how they acquire knowledge
  • Use of scientific methods
  • Rigorous procedures for data collection and analysis
  • Strive for objectivity
  • Even when studying familiar social phenomena

Explain the importance of method in sociology.

Answer: In sociology, method is crucial because it defines how sociologists distinguish their knowledge from common sense. By adopting systematic procedures for gathering data, sociologists ensure their findings are scientific and reliable, rather than just personal opinions or observations.

Mindmap to Remember This Answer

  • Key Concept: Importance of method
  • Why Important: Differentiates sociological knowledge from common sense
  • Method: Systematic, ensures scientific reliability
  • Outcome: Findings are based on robust data, not just opinions

How do sociologists aim to understand both the outsider’s and insider’s perspectives?

Answer: Sociologists try to understand both the outsider’s and insider’s perspectives when studying social phenomena. They adopt the viewpoint of the people they study to see the world through their eyes, while also maintaining an outsider’s analytical perspective. This allows them to grasp the subjective meanings and lived experiences of the participants.

Mindmap to remember this answer:

  • Understand both outsider’s and insider’s perspectives
  • Adopt viewpoint of people being studied
  • See the world through their eyes
  • Grasp subjective meanings and experiences
  • Examples: friendship, religion, bargaining
  • What do these mean to people in different cultures?
  • How do participants interpret their own actions?
  • Maintain outsider’s analytical perspective simultaneously
  • Balance inside and outside views

Define ‘methodology’ in the context of sociology.

Answer: In sociology, ‘methodology’ refers to the study of methods used for acquiring knowledge. It deals with the broader scientific issues and techniques beyond just individual methods, ensuring that sociological research is scientifically valid.

Mindmap to Remember This Answer

  • Concept: Methodology
  • Definition: Study of methods in sociology
  • Purpose: Ensures scientific validity
  • Focus: Broader issues and techniques

Discuss the challenges of achieving objectivity in sociology.

Answer: Achieving objectivity in sociology is challenging because sociologists are part of the society they study, which can introduce bias. Personal experiences and societal values may influence their interpretations, making it difficult to maintain a neutral and unbiased perspective.

Mindmap to Remember This Answer

  • Concept: Objectivity in Sociology
  • Challenges: Bias, Personal Influence
  • Why Hard?: Sociologists are society members
  • Impact: Affects neutrality and unbiased research

What is self-reflexivity, and why is it important in sociological research?

Answer: Self-reflexivity in sociology involves critically examining one’s own beliefs and biases while conducting research. It’s essential because it helps maintain objectivity and understand the subject better by acknowledging personal influences on the study.

Mindmap to Remember This Answer

  • Concept: Self-Reflexivity
  • Purpose: Maintain objectivity, understand biases
  • Importance: Avoids personal influence, improves research accuracy
  • Method: Self-examination, adopting other perspectives
  • How does the concept of reflexivity aid in maintaining objectivity?

Answer: Reflexivity helps maintain objectivity in sociology by allowing researchers to recognize and control their biases. This self-awareness is crucial because it helps prevent personal views from influencing the study’s outcomes, leading to more accurate and unbiased results.

Mindmap to Remember This Answer

  • Concept: Reflexivity
  • Purpose: Control biases, ensure accuracy
  • Process: Self-awareness, critical self-examination
  • Outcome: Objective, unbiased research results
  • What is meant by ‘multiple truths’ in sociology?

Answer: In sociology, ‘multiple truths’ refer to the idea that different people may have different perspectives and interpretations of the same social reality. This concept acknowledges that individual experiences can influence one’s understanding of the truth.

Mindmap to Remember This Answer

  • Concept: Multiple truths
  • Meaning: Different perspectives on the same issue
  • Importance: Recognizes individual experiences
  • Example: Varied perceptions of what constitutes ‘good food’

Explain the significance of multiple methods in sociological research.

Answer: In sociology, using multiple methods is significant because it helps in addressing different types of research questions effectively. Each method has its own strengths and can provide unique insights, allowing for a more comprehensive understanding of social phenomena.

Mindmap to Remember This Answer

  • Concept: Multiple methods in sociology
  • Purpose: To address varied research questions
  • Strengths: Each method offers unique insights
  • Result: Comprehensive understanding of social phenomena

Describe the role of participant observation in sociology.

Answer: Participant observation allows sociologists to immerse themselves in the community they are studying, enabling them to understand and record everyday life and practices from an insider’s perspective. This method helps reveal deeper insights into social behaviours and cultural norms.

Mindmap to Remember This Answer

  • Key Concept: Participant Observation
  • Purpose: Immersion in community
  • Benefits: Gains insider’s perspective, deeper understanding
  • Focus: Social behaviours, cultural norms
  • Method: Live among people, observe daily life

What are the challenges associated with field work in social anthropology?

Answer: Field work in social anthropology involves challenges such as bias, difficulty maintaining objectivity, and potential cultural misunderstandings. It requires anthropologists to immerse themselves deeply, which can blur the line between observer and participant.

Mindmap to Remember This Answer

  • Main Challenges: Bias, objectivity
  • Deep Immersion: Living as part of the community
  • Cultural Misunderstandings: Differences in values and practices
  • Blur Lines: Observer vs. participant dynamics

How did Bronislaw Malinowski contribute to the field of social anthropology?

Answer: Bronislaw Malinowski, through his innovative fieldwork during his internment in the Trobriand Islands, revolutionised social anthropology. He emphasised the importance of living among the natives and learning their language to gain a deeper, more accurate understanding of their culture.

Mindmap to Remember This Answer

  • Key Person: Bronislaw Malinowski
  • Contribution: Established fieldwork as a key method
  • Methodology: Living with natives, learning language
  • Outcome: Deeper cultural understanding
  • Impact: Changed how anthropologists gather data

Please log in to view this content.

Case Based Questions

Chapter 5: Doing Sociology: Research Methods – Case Based Questions


Long Answer Type Questions

Chapter 5: Doing Sociology: Research Methods – Long Answer Type Questions

Discuss the importance of method in sociology, especially in differentiating a sociologist from laypersons. Include examples of how sociologists gather knowledge differently than non-sociologists.

Answer: The method distinguishes sociologists from non-sociologists, making it crucial. Sociologists use systematic, scientific methods to gather knowledge. Sociologists study social phenomena using participant observation, surveys, and interviews.

Sociologists live with their subjects for a long time to understand their lifestyle. This method lets sociologists observe and experience social interactions, customs, and beliefs that outsiders may miss.

Using questionnaires or interviews, surveys collect data from a representative sample of a population. Sociologists use sampling to generalise about social patterns and trends by accurately representing the population.

Structured or unstructured interviews allow sociologists to explore people’s social phenomena experiences, perceptions, and meanings. Sociologists can understand social life’s subjective aspects by asking probing questions and listening.

Sociologists use scientific methods and rigorous data collection to gather empirical evidence and develop theories to explain social phenomena. Laypeople rely on personal experiences, anecdotes, and common sense, which can bias and mislead.

Mindmap to remember this answer:

  • Importance of method in sociology
  • Differentiating sociologists from laypersons
  • Methods used by sociologists:
      • Participant observation
      • Surveys
      • Interviews
  • Participant observation:
      • Immersion in community
      • Insider’s perspective
      • Understanding nuances
  • Surveys:
      • Representative sample
      • Quantitative data
      • Generalizations
  • Interviews:
      • In-depth exploration
      • Subjective experiences
      • Rich understanding
  • Scientific principles and rigorous data collection
    • Empirical evidence and theory development
  • Laypersons’ reliance on personal experiences and anecdotal evidence

Analyse the concepts of objectivity and subjectivity in sociology. How do these concepts influence sociological research, particularly in comparison to natural sciences?

Answer: Unlike natural sciences, sociology is heavily influenced by objectivity and subjectivity. Sociologists are deeply involved in society, making objectivity difficult.

Objectivity requires impartiality and facts. Research in the natural sciences, which study the outside world, requires it. Sociologists study their social environment. This hinders objectivity.

Sociologists’ values, beliefs, and experiences may influence their research as society members. Even when studying another group, sociologists may be influenced by their social environment’s biases. This hinders objectivity.

Subjectivity comes from personal values, preferences, and perspectives affecting research. Because people perceive and experience social phenomena differently, sociology recognises multiple subjective truths or interpretations of reality. Natural phenomena usually have one objective explanation in the natural sciences.

Sociologists approach these issues in various ways. Using “reflexivity,” researchers examine their own thoughts, feelings, and biases about the topic. They approach their work from an outsider’s perspective and consider their subjects’ perspectives.

Sociologists admit that different paradigms or schools of thought can lead to different interpretations of social phenomena. This highlights sociology’s objectivity issues.

Sociologists use rigorous methods, document procedures, and acknowledge bias to produce objective knowledge but cannot be completely objective. People realise objectivity is a process, not a goal.

Mindmap to remember this answer:

  • Objectivity vs. Subjectivity in Sociology
  • Challenges of Objectivity
      • Researchers as members of society
      • Influence of values and experiences
      • Multiple interpretations of reality
  • Comparison with Natural Sciences
      • Natural sciences study external world
      • Sociology studies social world
  • Strategies for Objectivity
      • Reflexivity
      • Adopting outsider’s perspective
      • Acknowledging multiple paradigms
  • Continuous Process of Objectivity
      • Rigorous methods
      • Documentation of procedures
      • Acknowledging potential biases
  • Subjectivity and Multiple Truths
    • Recognition of different perspectives
    • Influence of individual values and preferences

Elaborate on the various methodological issues faced by sociologists. Discuss the significance of different research methods in sociological studies, highlighting how each method caters to specific research needs.

Answer: Sociologists face methodological challenges due to social research’s uniqueness. Objectivity and bias reduction are difficult. Sociologists may be influenced by their values, experiences, and social contexts, making impartiality difficult.

Sociologists use different research methods, each with pros and cons, to address these issues. Validity and reliability depend on methodology.

Participant observation lets sociologists live in their communities and see social phenomena differently. This method takes time and may be biassed because the researcher can influence the observed behaviour.

Because surveys are representative of a larger population, sociologists can generalise their findings. This fast method covers many topics but may miss complex social dynamics.

Interviews can illuminate social phenomena’ experiences, perceptions, and meanings. Interviews allow follow-up questions but are time-consuming and vary by researcher-participant rapport.

Sociologists use triangulation to overcome individual approach limitations and better understand the research problem.

Sociologists choose methods based on their research questions, resources, and need to balance breadth, depth, objectivity, and practicality.

Mindmap to remember this answer:

  • Methodological Issues in Sociology
      • Objectivity and bias
      • Multiple perspectives and interpretations
      • Complexity of the social world
  • Significance of Different Research Methods
      • Participant Observation
        • Insider’s perspective
        • Time-consuming
        • Objectivity challenges
      • Surveys
        • Representative samples
        • Generalizability
        • Potential lack of depth
      • Interviews
        • In-depth exploration
        • Flexibility
        • Time-consuming
        • Rapport with participants
  • Method Selection Criteria
      • Research questions
      • Available resources
      • Balancing trade-offs
        • Breadth vs. depth
        • Objectivity vs. subjectivity
        • Practicality
  • Triangulation
      • Combining multiple methods
      • Overcoming individual limitations
      • Comprehensive understanding
  • Continuous Evaluation and Adaptation
    • Reflecting on methodological choices
    • Addressing emerging challenges
    • Refining research approach

Describe the process and significance of participant observation in sociology and social anthropology. Provide examples of how this method provides a deep understanding of cultural systems.

Answer: Sociology and social anthropology study cultures and societies through participant observation. The researcher spends months or years with the community they study.

Starting as a ‘outsider,’ the researcher learns the language and integrates into community life. Insider knowledge, skills, and perspectives are unavailable to outsiders.

A census, map, and genealogies help the researcher understand the community’s structure and kinship systems. Community life includes festivals, religious events, livelihoods, family relations, and childrearing. The researcher asks about children to understand the community’s lifestyle.

Insiders’ rich and detailed view of life allows bias correction and tracking changes in different contexts. Good or bad harvest seasons or employment or unemployment can change social structures and cultural practices.

Social anthropology became scientific through participant observation. Bronislaw Malinowski, who lived with the Trobriand Islanders for a year, demonstrated the value of unmediated researcher-culture interaction. Beyond second-hand accounts, this method produced authentic cultural system accounts.

Mindmap to remember this answer:

  • Participant Observation
      • Immersion in the community
      • Extended duration (months/year)
      • Becoming an ‘insider’
  • Process
      • Census and mapping
      • Constructing genealogies
      • Learning language
      • Observing and participating in daily life
      • Asking questions like a child
  • Significance
      • Rich and detailed understanding
      • Insider’s perspective
      • Tracking changes in different contexts
      • Correcting biases
  • Role in Social Anthropology
      • Establishing rigorous scientific method
      • Direct interaction with culture
      • Authentic accounts (e.g., Malinowski’s work)
      • Moving beyond second-hand accounts
  • Examples
    • Festivals and religious events
    • Modes of livelihood
    • Family relations
    • Child-rearing practices

Examine the challenges and ethical considerations sociologists face while conducting fieldwork in modern communities compared to primitive tribes, referencing the difficulties mentioned in “Field Work in Sociology – Some Difficulties”.

Answer: Sociologists studying modern communities face different ethical and fieldwork challenges than primitive tribes. As noted in “Field Work in Sociology – Some Difficulties,” sociologists study literate populations and may have subjects read their research reports.

Lacking anonymity is hard. Anthropologists studying remote tribes could hide their subjects’ identities, but sociologists studying modern communities risk harming individuals despite care. Published research must minimise participant harm.

Furthermore, sociologists studying modern communities cannot easily assume an outsider’s perspective. Society members’ biases may be shaped by their personal experiences and social contexts. Researching affiliated groups is less objective.

Fieldwork relationships are one-sided and power-driven, raising ethical concerns. Though the goal is to represent the studied community, the researcher may select and present biassed or biassed information. This questions how accurately participants’ lives are depicted.

Addressing these issues requires sociologists to be self-reflective and transparent. They must constantly assess their attitudes, meticulously document their procedures, and recognise work biases and limitations. Some scholars prefer dialogic formats, where community members can directly comment on the researcher’s findings, promoting collaboration and democracy.

Mindmap to remember this answer:

  • Challenges in Modern Communities
      • Lack of anonymity
      • Potential harm to individuals
      • Researcher’s biases and preconceptions
  • Ethical Considerations
      • Power dynamics in fieldwork relationships
      • Accurate representation of lived experiences
      • Risk of unconscious bias or selective portrayal
  • Addressing Challenges
      • Rigorous self-reflection
      • Transparent documentation of procedures
      • Acknowledging potential biases and limitations
  • Collaborative Approaches
      • Dialogic formats
      • Community engagement and feedback
      • Fostering democratic and participatory research
  • Responsibility and Minimising Harm
    • Careful handling of sensitive information
    • Protecting participants’ interests
    • Balancing research goals with ethical considerations

Discuss the evolution of fieldwork in social anthropology as detailed in the textbook, focusing on the shift from armchair anthropology to rigorous fieldwork.

Answer: Traditional “armchair anthropology” gave way to intensive social anthropology fieldwork. Anthropology became a respected social science after this change.

Travellers, missionaries, and colonial administrators told early anthropologists about distant communities they had never visited. This method, called “armchair scholarship,” was criticised for lacking subject observation and interaction.

In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, more anthropologists, including natural scientists, began systematic surveys and firsthand observations of tribal languages, customs, rituals, and beliefs. Positive firsthand fieldwork results supported the idea that secondhand accounts were unscholarly.

Polish anthropologist Bronislaw Malinowski in Britain influenced this change. After a year with the Trobriand Islanders, Malinowski learned their language and culture. Based on meticulous field notes and diaries, his influential work demonstrated the value of unmediated anthropologist-culture interaction.

Anthropologists were inspired by Malinowski’s emphasis on language learning, contextual observation, and avoiding interpreters. Fieldwork, or participant observation, became essential to anthropology education and research.

A focus on rigorous fieldwork improved anthropological data and challenged power dynamics. Engaging community members as informants and incorporating their perspectives promoted inclusive and dialogic knowledge production.

Mindmap to remember this answer:

  • Evolution of Fieldwork in Social Anthropology
      • Transition from “armchair anthropology” to rigorous fieldwork
  • Traditional Approach: “Armchair Anthropology”
      • Reliance on second-hand accounts
      • Lack of firsthand observation
      • Criticised for being unscholarly
  • Emergence of Systematic Fieldwork
      • Systematic surveys and firsthand observations
      • Positive results reinforced the shift
      • Natural scientists leading the transition
  • Bronislaw Malinowski’s Contribution
      • Immersion in Trobriand Islands
      • Intensive language learning
      • Contextual observation and field notes
  • Fieldwork as a Rigorous Method
      • Participant observation institutionalised
      • Principal method for knowledge production
      • Challenged traditional power dynamics
      • Inclusive and dialogic approach
  • Impact on Anthropology as a Discipline
    • Enriched depth and accuracy of data
    • Established as a respected social science
    • Fostered recognition and credibility

Provide a comprehensive analysis of the various styles of doing village studies in Indian sociology, as observed from the 1950s to the 1960s. How have these studies contributed to the understanding of Indian rural life and its dynamics?

Answer: Village studies in Indian sociology advanced in the 1950s and 1960s using various methods. Understanding rural life in independent India required these studies.

The village replaced the ‘tribe’ or ‘bounded community’ in classical social anthropology. M.N. Srinivas’s “The Remembered Village,” captures this style. Srinivas spent a year in a village near Mysore, immersing himself in the community’s life and recording his observations from memory after losing his field notes.

Another notable study, S.C. Dube’s “Indian Village,” was completed by an agricultural, economic, and medical team. This collaboration studied and developed the village as a rural development lab.

American social anthropologists, psychologists, and linguists studied eastern Uttar Pradesh villages through Cornell University’s Cornell Village Study Project. Many scholars became Indian society experts through our ambitious academic project, which promoted cross-cultural exchange.

Missionaries wrote village studies like William and Charlotte Wiser’s “Behind Mud Walls,” about their sociological experiences in an Uttar Pradesh village.

The diverse approaches to village studies in Indian sociology illuminated rural India’s social, economic, and cultural dynamics. They describe village life, including kinship, social structures, religion, livelihoods, and development. By studying villages as microcosms of Indian society, sociologists can understand the complex relationship between tradition and modernity and the challenges and opportunities rural communities face in a rapidly changing nation.

Mindmap to remember this answer:

  • Village Studies in Indian Sociology (1950s-1960s)
      • Classical Social Anthropological Style
        • M.N. Srinivas’s “The Remembered Village”
        • Village as a ‘bounded community’
      • Multidisciplinary Collaborative Approach
        • S.C. Dube’s “Indian Village”
        • Involving various disciplines
        • Village as a laboratory for development
      • Cross-Cultural Academic Projects
        • Cornell Village Study Project
        • Collaboration with American scholars
        • Multidisciplinary studies in eastern U.P.
      • Missionary-Inspired Studies
        • William and Charlotte Wiser’s “Behind Mud Walls”
        • Sociological perspective on missionary experiences
  • Contributions to Understanding Rural Life
      • Insights into social structures and kinship systems
      • Exploration of religious practices and cultural dynamics
      • Study of modes of livelihood and economic activities
      • Impact of development initiatives and modernity
      • Village as a microcosm of Indian society
  • Methodological Diversity
    • Participant observation
    • Multidisciplinary collaboration
    • Cross-cultural exchange and training
    • Combination of academic and practical goals

Discuss the role of reflexivity in sociological research. How does self-reflexivity help sociologists manage biases arising from their own backgrounds and societal positions?

Answer: Sociological research requires reflexivity to manage biases from backgrounds and social positions. As society members, sociologists’ values, experiences, and contexts may influence their research.

Sociologists rigorously self-examine to gain outsider perspectives. Reflexivity helps them see themselves and their research from others’ perspectives. They must critically assess their research-related beliefs, biases, and feelings.

All procedures and evidence must be meticulously documented and cited for reflexivity. Transparency lets others replicate the researcher’s steps and evaluate the results. It also helps researchers verify their claims.

Sociologists also discuss how their social background may influence their research. The warning of bias helps readers mentally compensate while reading the research study.

Studying other communities requires self-reflection. Social values and prejudices can influence sociologists without personal experience. Regularly self-examining and adopting others’ perspectives reduces unconscious bias.

Because social “truth” has many interpretations, sociologists represent their subjects’ diverse interpretations and lived experiences. Reflexivity helps them recognise their position and avoid judging their subjects.

Mindmap to remember this answer:

  • Self-Reflexivity in Sociological Research
      • Continuous self-examination
      • Adopting an outsider’s perspective
      • Documenting procedures and citing sources
  • Managing Biases
      • Acknowledging personal backgrounds
      • Recognizing potential sources of bias
      • Alerting readers to potential biases
  • Studying Different Groups and Communities
      • Mitigating unconscious bias
      • Adopting perspectives of research subjects
      • Avoiding imposing personal views
  • Multiple Versions of Truth
      • Representing diverse interpretations
      • Respecting lived experiences
      • Mindfulness of positionality
  • Transparency and Accountability
    • Allowing others to evaluate findings
    • Checking and re-checking arguments
    • Fostering critical engagement

Analyse the impact of multiple truths and perspectives on objectivity in sociology. What are the implications of having multiple paradigms within the discipline, and how does this affect sociological inquiry?

Answer: Multiple social truths and perspectives affect sociological research objectivity. Sociology deals with subjective experiences, which leads to different reality interpretations than the natural sciences.

Multiple paradigms or schools of thought in the field are important. Sociology is a “multi-paradigmatic” science with divergent theories. This diversity of perspectives challenges the idea of a single, objective truth and shows the complexity of studying social phenomena.

Based on assumptions and perspectives, sociological theories may explain the same social issue differently. Functionalism emphasises social institutions in maintaining order, while conflict theory emphasises power dynamics and inequality. These perspectives demonstrate social reality interpretation.

Sociology’s many perspectives make objectivity hard. Since sociologists are social members, they bring their values, experiences, and biases to research. Sociologists studying other groups may be influenced by their social contexts’ biases.

Given that objectivity is a constant pursuit, sociological inquiry becomes a continuous process of self-reflexivity and critical examination. Sociologists must carefully examine their assumptions, document their methods, and acknowledge biases to evaluate and contextualise their findings.

Sociology benefits from multiple truths and paradigms via diverse analytical frameworks and critical dialogue. Sociologists use methodological pluralism to triangulate perspectives and approach social phenomena.

Mindmap to remember this answer:

  • Multiple Truths and Perspectives in Sociology
      • Subjective experiences and interpretations
      • Competing versions of reality
  • Multiple Paradigms within the Discipline
      • Coexistence of different theoretical frameworks
      • Mutually incompatible schools of thought
  • Implications for Objectivity
      • Challenge to the notion of a single objective truth
      • Sociologists’ own values and biases
  • Continuous Pursuit of Objectivity
      • Self-reflexivity and critical examination
      • Transparent documentation of procedures
      • Acknowledging potential sources of bias
  • Enriching the Discipline
    • Diverse analytical frameworks
    • Encouraging critical dialogue
    • Methodological pluralism and triangulation
    • Comprehensive and nuanced understandings

Evaluate the use of multiple methods in sociological research as discussed in the textbook. Why is triangulation important, and how can different research methods complement each other to provide a more comprehensive understanding of a sociological issue?

Answer: Sociological triangulation helps explain complex social phenomena from different angles. This method recognises that no single sociological method can solve a problem and that each has pros and cons.

Triangulation uses surveys, interviews, participant observation, and secondary data analysis to study the same issue. Multiple methods allow researchers to cross-validate and overcome method limitations.

Surveys provide a broad overview and quantitative data from a large population, while interviews reveal subjective experiences and meanings. Participant observation allows researchers to experience their subjects’ lives and spot nuances that other methods miss.

These complementary methods help researchers confirm their findings, find contradictions, and understand the social phenomenon. Triangulation can reveal details that one method misses, enriching analysis.

By comparing results from multiple sources, triangulation reduces method bias. Research credibility and validity improve with methodological rigour.

Triangulation recognises that social reality is complex and multifaceted, with multiple truths and perspectives. Multimethodology helps sociologists understand social life’s complex dynamics and produce more robust and well-rounded research.

Mindmap to remember this answer:

  • Triangulation: Combining Multiple Methods
      • Surveys
      • Interviews
      • Participant observation
      • Secondary data analysis
  • Comprehensive Understanding
      • Capturing different aspects of social phenomena
      • Compensating for limitations of individual methods
      • Cross-validating findings
  • Complementary Strengths
      • Surveys: Broad overview, quantitative data
      • Interviews: In-depth insights, subjective experiences
      • Participant observation: Immersion in lived realities
  • Mitigating Biases
      • Cross-checking findings from multiple sources
      • Enhancing methodological rigour and validity
  • Recognizing Social Complexity
    • Multiple truths and perspectives
    • Embracing methodological pluralism
    • Producing robust and well-rounded research

Explore the significance of sample selection in survey research according to the textbook. Discuss the principles of stratification and randomization, and their importance in ensuring the representativeness and reliability of survey findings.

Answer: Survey research relies on a representative sample for reliability and generalizability. Stratification and randomization guide sample selection, according to the textbook.

Stratification involves representing all relevant population subgroups in the sample. Large populations have subgroups based on rural-urban divide, village size, class, caste, gender, age, and religion. Stratification implies that a sample is representative if it represents all relevant strata of the population under study.

When studying religious attitudes, all religious groups must be sampled. To capture diverse perspectives, trade union attitudes should be studied with workers, managers, and industrialists.

The second principle, randomization, eliminates biases and predeterminations by selecting individuals, households, or villages for the sample by chance. Probability states that each person has an equal chance of being chosen.

Randomization methods include drawing lots, using random number tables, or using calculators or computers. Researchers use this principle to create a representative sample that matches the population, allowing them to generalise their findings with a known margin of error.

These principles improve survey representativeness and reliability. A well-stratified and randomised sample reduces sampling bias and ensures research validity by accurately reflecting population diversity and distribution.

Mindmap to remember this answer:

  • Sample Selection in Survey Research
      • Representative samples
      • Reliability and generalizability
  • Stratification
      • Recognizing sub-groups within the population
      • Reflecting relevant strata in the sample
      • Factors: rural-urban, village size, class, caste, gender, age, religion
  • Randomization
      • Selection by chance (probability)
      • Equal opportunity for selection
      • Techniques: drawing lots, random number tables, computer-generated numbers
  • Enhancing Representativeness
      • Capturing population diversity
      • Minimising sampling bias
      • Increasing validity of research conclusions
  • Principles of Sample Selection
    • Stratification: Reflecting population strata
    • Randomization: Selection by chance
    • Together ensuring a representative and reliable sample

Elaborate on the difficulties and limitations of participant observation as mentioned in the textbook. How do these challenges affect the reliability of the findings, and what strategies can researchers use to mitigate these issues?

Answer: The textbook highlights several difficulties and limitations associated with the participant observation method, which can affect the reliability of the research findings.

Key challenges include:

  • Limited scope: Participant observation, by its very nature, involves intensive research conducted by a single scholar, typically covering a small geographical area like a village or community. This raises concerns about the generalizability of the findings to larger populations or regions, as the observed phenomena may be specific to the studied context or exceptional.
  • Potential bias and subjectivity: As the researcher becomes deeply immersed in the community, there is a risk of losing objectivity and adopting the perspectives of the subjects being studied. The aim is to represent the views of the participants, but the researcher may unconsciously select and present information in a way that reflects their own biases or preconceptions.
  • One-sided account: Participant observation is often criticised for presenting a one-sided account, as the researcher speaks for the community based on their interpretations. There is no alternative version available for comparison, increasing the chances of bias or error in the representation of the community’s lived experiences.
  • Limited participation: Even with extensive immersion, there may be aspects of the community’s life that remain inaccessible or hidden from the researcher, leading to an incomplete understanding of the cultural system.

To mitigate these issues and enhance the reliability of findings, researchers can employ various strategies:

  • Triangulation: Combining participant observation with other methods like interviews, surveys, or archival research can provide multiple perspectives and corroborate findings, reducing potential biases.
  • Reflexivity: Continuous self-examination and documentation of the researcher’s own attitudes, biases, and potential influences can help acknowledge and address subjectivity.
  • Collaborative approaches: Involving community members in the research process, such as translating findings into local languages and incorporating their feedback, can promote greater accuracy and accountability.
  • Prolonged engagement: Extending the duration of fieldwork and building rapport with participants can deepen the researcher’s understanding and increase the chances of gaining access to previously undisclosed aspects of the community’s life.

Mindmap to remember this answer:

  • Limitations of Participant Observation
      • Limited scope and generalizability
      • Potential bias and subjectivity
      • One-sided account
      • Limited participation
  • Challenges to Reliability
      • Questionable representativeness
      • Researcher’s biases and preconceptions
      • Incomplete understanding of cultural systems
  • Strategies to Enhance Reliability
      • Triangulation with other methods
      • Reflexivity and self-examination
      • Collaborative approaches with community involvement
      • Prolonged engagement and rapport building
  • Mitigating Factors
    • Acknowledging limitations
    • Transparency in research process
    • Combining multiple strategies
    • Continuous evaluation and adaptation

Discuss the transition from traditional to modern approaches in social anthropology and sociology based on fieldwork practices. How have historical shifts in methodology influenced the outcomes and acceptance of social sciences as rigorous academic disciplines?

Answer: Fieldwork methods changed as social anthropology and sociology advanced. This made these fields academic and scientific.

Travellers, missionaries, and colonial administrators told early anthropologists about distant communities. Because it lacked firsthand observation and interaction, “armchair scholarship,” was unscholarly.

Modern fieldwork scholars like Bronislaw Malinowski advocated immersive participant observation and intensive language learning. By living with their subjects for years, anthropologists became “insiders” to their culture, customs, and beliefs.

Anthropologists described native cultures directly, challenging secondary sources. Fieldwork and scientific methodology gave anthropology training credibility.

Sociology study modern communities, not remote tribes. Long-term urban participant observation immersed sociologists like William Foote Whyte in their subjects’ lives. This method revealed social norms, power structures, and dynamics that traditional methods could not.

Fieldwork enriched data and challenged power. Community members were informants and their perspectives were featured to make knowledge production more inclusive and dialogic.

Historical methodology changes made social anthropology and sociology rigorous academic fields. Firsthand accounts, systematic observations, and immersive fieldwork can provide scientifically reliable and insightful knowledge about human societies and cultures.

Mindmap to remember this answer:

  • Transition from Traditional to Modern Approaches
      • Social Anthropology
      • Sociology
  • Traditional Approaches
      • Reliance on second-hand accounts
      • “Armchair scholarship”
      • Limitations of secondary sources
  • Emergence of Modern Fieldwork Methods
      • Participant observation
      • Immersion in native cultures
      • Intensive language learning
  • Key Figures and Contributions
      • Bronislaw Malinowski (Anthropology)
      • William Foote Whyte (Sociology)
      • Firsthand accounts and authentic representations
  • Impacts and Significance
      • Enriched depth and accuracy of data
      • Challenged traditional power dynamics
      • Established disciplines as rigorous and scientific
      • Inclusive and dialogic knowledge production
  • Acceptance and Credibility
    • Systematic observations and immersive practices
    • Reliable and insightful knowledge generation
    • Fostered recognition as academic disciplines

Discuss the importance of method in sociology, especially in differentiating a sociologist from laypersons. Include examples of how sociologists gather knowledge differently than non-sociologists.

Answer: The method distinguishes sociologists from non-sociologists, making it crucial. Sociologists use systematic, scientific methods to gather knowledge. Sociologists study social phenomena using participant observation, surveys, and interviews.

Sociologists live with their subjects for a long time to understand their lifestyle. This method lets sociologists observe and experience social interactions, customs, and beliefs that outsiders may miss.

Using questionnaires or interviews, surveys collect data from a representative sample of a population. Sociologists use sampling to generalise about social patterns and trends by accurately representing the population.

Structured or unstructured interviews allow sociologists to explore people’s social phenomena experiences, perceptions, and meanings. Sociologists can understand social life’s subjective aspects by asking probing questions and listening.

Sociologists use scientific methods and rigorous data collection to gather empirical evidence and develop theories to explain social phenomena. Laypeople rely on personal experiences, anecdotes, and common sense, which can bias and mislead.

Mindmap to remember this answer:

  • Importance of method in sociology
  • Differentiating sociologists from laypersons
  • Methods used by sociologists:
      • Participant observation
      • Surveys
      • Interviews
  • Participant observation:
      • Immersion in community
      • Insider’s perspective
      • Understanding nuances
  • Surveys:
      • Representative sample
      • Quantitative data
      • Generalizations
  • Interviews:
      • In-depth exploration
      • Subjective experiences
      • Rich understanding
  • Scientific principles and rigorous data collection
    • Empirical evidence and theory development
  • Laypersons’ reliance on personal experiences and anecdotal evidence

Analyse the concepts of objectivity and subjectivity in sociology. How do these concepts influence sociological research, particularly in comparison to natural sciences?

Answer: Unlike natural sciences, sociology is heavily influenced by objectivity and subjectivity. Sociologists are deeply involved in society, making objectivity difficult.

Objectivity requires impartiality and facts. Research in the natural sciences, which study the outside world, requires it. Sociologists study their social environment. This hinders objectivity.

Sociologists’ values, beliefs, and experiences may influence their research as society members. Even when studying another group, sociologists may be influenced by their social environment’s biases. This hinders objectivity.

Subjectivity comes from personal values, preferences, and perspectives affecting research. Because people perceive and experience social phenomena differently, sociology recognises multiple subjective truths or interpretations of reality. Natural phenomena usually have one objective explanation in the natural sciences.

Sociologists approach these issues in various ways. Using “reflexivity,” researchers examine their own thoughts, feelings, and biases about the topic. They approach their work from an outsider’s perspective and consider their subjects’ perspectives.

Sociologists admit that different paradigms or schools of thought can lead to different interpretations of social phenomena. This highlights sociology’s objectivity issues.

Sociologists use rigorous methods, document procedures, and acknowledge bias to produce objective knowledge but cannot be completely objective. People realise objectivity is a process, not a goal.

Mindmap to remember this answer:

  • Objectivity vs. Subjectivity in Sociology
  • Challenges of Objectivity
      • Researchers as members of society
      • Influence of values and experiences
      • Multiple interpretations of reality
  • Comparison with Natural Sciences
      • Natural sciences study external world
      • Sociology studies social world
  • Strategies for Objectivity
      • Reflexivity
      • Adopting outsider’s perspective
      • Acknowledging multiple paradigms
  • Continuous Process of Objectivity
      • Rigorous methods
      • Documentation of procedures
      • Acknowledging potential biases
  • Subjectivity and Multiple Truths
    • Recognition of different perspectives
    • Influence of individual values and preferences

Elaborate on the various methodological issues faced by sociologists. Discuss the significance of different research methods in sociological studies, highlighting how each method caters to specific research needs.

Answer: Sociologists face methodological challenges due to social research’s uniqueness. Objectivity and bias reduction are difficult. Sociologists may be influenced by their values, experiences, and social contexts, making impartiality difficult.

Sociologists use different research methods, each with pros and cons, to address these issues. Validity and reliability depend on methodology.

Participant observation lets sociologists live in their communities and see social phenomena differently. This method takes time and may be biassed because the researcher can influence the observed behaviour.

Because surveys are representative of a larger population, sociologists can generalise their findings. This fast method covers many topics but may miss complex social dynamics.

Interviews can illuminate social phenomena’ experiences, perceptions, and meanings. Interviews allow follow-up questions but are time-consuming and vary by researcher-participant rapport.

Sociologists use triangulation to overcome individual approach limitations and better understand the research problem.

Sociologists choose methods based on their research questions, resources, and need to balance breadth, depth, objectivity, and practicality.

Mindmap to remember this answer:

  • Methodological Issues in Sociology
      • Objectivity and bias
      • Multiple perspectives and interpretations
      • Complexity of the social world
  • Significance of Different Research Methods
      • Participant Observation
        • Insider’s perspective
        • Time-consuming
        • Objectivity challenges
      • Surveys
        • Representative samples
        • Generalizability
        • Potential lack of depth
      • Interviews
        • In-depth exploration
        • Flexibility
        • Time-consuming
        • Rapport with participants
  • Method Selection Criteria
      • Research questions
      • Available resources
      • Balancing trade-offs
        • Breadth vs. depth
        • Objectivity vs. subjectivity
        • Practicality
  • Triangulation
      • Combining multiple methods
      • Overcoming individual limitations
      • Comprehensive understanding
  • Continuous Evaluation and Adaptation
    • Reflecting on methodological choices
    • Addressing emerging challenges
    • Refining research approach

Describe the process and significance of participant observation in sociology and social anthropology. Provide examples of how this method provides a deep understanding of cultural systems.

Answer: Sociology and social anthropology study cultures and societies through participant observation. The researcher spends months or years with the community they study.

Starting as a ‘outsider,’ the researcher learns the language and integrates into community life. Insider knowledge, skills, and perspectives are unavailable to outsiders.

A census, map, and genealogies help the researcher understand the community’s structure and kinship systems. Community life includes festivals, religious events, livelihoods, family relations, and childrearing. The researcher asks about children to understand the community’s lifestyle.

Insiders’ rich and detailed view of life allows bias correction and tracking changes in different contexts. Good or bad harvest seasons or employment or unemployment can change social structures and cultural practices.

Social anthropology became scientific through participant observation. Bronislaw Malinowski, who lived with the Trobriand Islanders for a year, demonstrated the value of unmediated researcher-culture interaction. Beyond second-hand accounts, this method produced authentic cultural system accounts.

Mindmap to remember this answer:

  • Participant Observation
      • Immersion in the community
      • Extended duration (months/year)
      • Becoming an ‘insider’
  • Process
      • Census and mapping
      • Constructing genealogies
      • Learning language
      • Observing and participating in daily life
      • Asking questions like a child
  • Significance
      • Rich and detailed understanding
      • Insider’s perspective
      • Tracking changes in different contexts
      • Correcting biases
  • Role in Social Anthropology
      • Establishing rigorous scientific method
      • Direct interaction with culture
      • Authentic accounts (e.g., Malinowski’s work)
      • Moving beyond second-hand accounts
  • Examples
    • Festivals and religious events
    • Modes of livelihood
    • Family relations
    • Child-rearing practices

Examine the challenges and ethical considerations sociologists face while conducting fieldwork in modern communities compared to primitive tribes, referencing the difficulties mentioned in “Field Work in Sociology – Some Difficulties”.

Answer: Sociologists studying modern communities face different ethical and fieldwork challenges than primitive tribes. As noted in “Field Work in Sociology – Some Difficulties,” sociologists study literate populations and may have subjects read their research reports.

Lacking anonymity is hard. Anthropologists studying remote tribes could hide their subjects’ identities, but sociologists studying modern communities risk harming individuals despite care. Published research must minimise participant harm.

Furthermore, sociologists studying modern communities cannot easily assume an outsider’s perspective. Society members’ biases may be shaped by their personal experiences and social contexts. Researching affiliated groups is less objective.

Fieldwork relationships are one-sided and power-driven, raising ethical concerns. Though the goal is to represent the studied community, the researcher may select and present biassed or biassed information. This questions how accurately participants’ lives are depicted.

Addressing these issues requires sociologists to be self-reflective and transparent. They must constantly assess their attitudes, meticulously document their procedures, and recognise work biases and limitations. Some scholars prefer dialogic formats, where community members can directly comment on the researcher’s findings, promoting collaboration and democracy.

Mindmap to remember this answer:

  • Challenges in Modern Communities
      • Lack of anonymity
      • Potential harm to individuals
      • Researcher’s biases and preconceptions
  • Ethical Considerations
      • Power dynamics in fieldwork relationships
      • Accurate representation of lived experiences
      • Risk of unconscious bias or selective portrayal
  • Addressing Challenges
      • Rigorous self-reflection
      • Transparent documentation of procedures
      • Acknowledging potential biases and limitations
  • Collaborative Approaches
      • Dialogic formats
      • Community engagement and feedback
      • Fostering democratic and participatory research
  • Responsibility and Minimising Harm
    • Careful handling of sensitive information
    • Protecting participants’ interests
    • Balancing research goals with ethical considerations

Discuss the evolution of fieldwork in social anthropology as detailed in the textbook, focusing on the shift from armchair anthropology to rigorous fieldwork.

Answer: Traditional “armchair anthropology” gave way to intensive social anthropology fieldwork. Anthropology became a respected social science after this change.

Travellers, missionaries, and colonial administrators told early anthropologists about distant communities they had never visited. This method, called “armchair scholarship,” was criticised for lacking subject observation and interaction.

In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, more anthropologists, including natural scientists, began systematic surveys and firsthand observations of tribal languages, customs, rituals, and beliefs. Positive firsthand fieldwork results supported the idea that secondhand accounts were unscholarly.

Polish anthropologist Bronislaw Malinowski in Britain influenced this change. After a year with the Trobriand Islanders, Malinowski learned their language and culture. Based on meticulous field notes and diaries, his influential work demonstrated the value of unmediated anthropologist-culture interaction.

Anthropologists were inspired by Malinowski’s emphasis on language learning, contextual observation, and avoiding interpreters. Fieldwork, or participant observation, became essential to anthropology education and research.

A focus on rigorous fieldwork improved anthropological data and challenged power dynamics. Engaging community members as informants and incorporating their perspectives promoted inclusive and dialogic knowledge production.

Mindmap to remember this answer:

  • Evolution of Fieldwork in Social Anthropology
      • Transition from “armchair anthropology” to rigorous fieldwork
  • Traditional Approach: “Armchair Anthropology”
      • Reliance on second-hand accounts
      • Lack of firsthand observation
      • Criticised for being unscholarly
  • Emergence of Systematic Fieldwork
      • Systematic surveys and firsthand observations
      • Positive results reinforced the shift
      • Natural scientists leading the transition
  • Bronislaw Malinowski’s Contribution
      • Immersion in Trobriand Islands
      • Intensive language learning
      • Contextual observation and field notes
  • Fieldwork as a Rigorous Method
      • Participant observation institutionalised
      • Principal method for knowledge production
      • Challenged traditional power dynamics
      • Inclusive and dialogic approach
  • Impact on Anthropology as a Discipline
    • Enriched depth and accuracy of data
    • Established as a respected social science
    • Fostered recognition and credibility

Provide a comprehensive analysis of the various styles of doing village studies in Indian sociology, as observed from the 1950s to the 1960s. How have these studies contributed to the understanding of Indian rural life and its dynamics?

Answer: Village studies in Indian sociology advanced in the 1950s and 1960s using various methods. Understanding rural life in independent India required these studies.

The village replaced the ‘tribe’ or ‘bounded community’ in classical social anthropology. M.N. Srinivas’s “The Remembered Village,” captures this style. Srinivas spent a year in a village near Mysore, immersing himself in the community’s life and recording his observations from memory after losing his field notes.

Another notable study, S.C. Dube’s “Indian Village,” was completed by an agricultural, economic, and medical team. This collaboration studied and developed the village as a rural development lab.

American social anthropologists, psychologists, and linguists studied eastern Uttar Pradesh villages through Cornell University’s Cornell Village Study Project. Many scholars became Indian society experts through our ambitious academic project, which promoted cross-cultural exchange.

Missionaries wrote village studies like William and Charlotte Wiser’s “Behind Mud Walls,” about their sociological experiences in an Uttar Pradesh village.

The diverse approaches to village studies in Indian sociology illuminated rural India’s social, economic, and cultural dynamics. They describe village life, including kinship, social structures, religion, livelihoods, and development. By studying villages as microcosms of Indian society, sociologists can understand the complex relationship between tradition and modernity and the challenges and opportunities rural communities face in a rapidly changing nation.

Mindmap to remember this answer:

  • Village Studies in Indian Sociology (1950s-1960s)
      • Classical Social Anthropological Style
        • M.N. Srinivas’s “The Remembered Village”
        • Village as a ‘bounded community’
      • Multidisciplinary Collaborative Approach
        • S.C. Dube’s “Indian Village”
        • Involving various disciplines
        • Village as a laboratory for development
      • Cross-Cultural Academic Projects
        • Cornell Village Study Project
        • Collaboration with American scholars
        • Multidisciplinary studies in eastern U.P.
      • Missionary-Inspired Studies
        • William and Charlotte Wiser’s “Behind Mud Walls”
        • Sociological perspective on missionary experiences
  • Contributions to Understanding Rural Life
      • Insights into social structures and kinship systems
      • Exploration of religious practices and cultural dynamics
      • Study of modes of livelihood and economic activities
      • Impact of development initiatives and modernity
      • Village as a microcosm of Indian society
  • Methodological Diversity
    • Participant observation
    • Multidisciplinary collaboration
    • Cross-cultural exchange and training
    • Combination of academic and practical goals

Discuss the role of reflexivity in sociological research. How does self-reflexivity help sociologists manage biases arising from their own backgrounds and societal positions?

Answer: Sociological research requires reflexivity to manage biases from backgrounds and social positions. As society members, sociologists’ values, experiences, and contexts may influence their research.

Sociologists rigorously self-examine to gain outsider perspectives. Reflexivity helps them see themselves and their research from others’ perspectives. They must critically assess their research-related beliefs, biases, and feelings.

All procedures and evidence must be meticulously documented and cited for reflexivity. Transparency lets others replicate the researcher’s steps and evaluate the results. It also helps researchers verify their claims.

Sociologists also discuss how their social background may influence their research. The warning of bias helps readers mentally compensate while reading the research study.

Studying other communities requires self-reflection. Social values and prejudices can influence sociologists without personal experience. Regularly self-examining and adopting others’ perspectives reduces unconscious bias.

Because social “truth” has many interpretations, sociologists represent their subjects’ diverse interpretations and lived experiences. Reflexivity helps them recognise their position and avoid judging their subjects.

Mindmap to remember this answer:

  • Self-Reflexivity in Sociological Research
      • Continuous self-examination
      • Adopting an outsider’s perspective
      • Documenting procedures and citing sources
  • Managing Biases
      • Acknowledging personal backgrounds
      • Recognizing potential sources of bias
      • Alerting readers to potential biases
  • Studying Different Groups and Communities
      • Mitigating unconscious bias
      • Adopting perspectives of research subjects
      • Avoiding imposing personal views
  • Multiple Versions of Truth
      • Representing diverse interpretations
      • Respecting lived experiences
      • Mindfulness of positionality
  • Transparency and Accountability
    • Allowing others to evaluate findings
    • Checking and re-checking arguments
    • Fostering critical engagement

Analyse the impact of multiple truths and perspectives on objectivity in sociology. What are the implications of having multiple paradigms within the discipline, and how does this affect sociological inquiry?

Answer: Multiple social truths and perspectives affect sociological research objectivity. Sociology deals with subjective experiences, which leads to different reality interpretations than the natural sciences.

Multiple paradigms or schools of thought in the field are important. Sociology is a “multi-paradigmatic” science with divergent theories. This diversity of perspectives challenges the idea of a single, objective truth and shows the complexity of studying social phenomena.

Based on assumptions and perspectives, sociological theories may explain the same social issue differently. Functionalism emphasises social institutions in maintaining order, while conflict theory emphasises power dynamics and inequality. These perspectives demonstrate social reality interpretation.

Sociology’s many perspectives make objectivity hard. Since sociologists are social members, they bring their values, experiences, and biases to research. Sociologists studying other groups may be influenced by their social contexts’ biases.

Given that objectivity is a constant pursuit, sociological inquiry becomes a continuous process of self-reflexivity and critical examination. Sociologists must carefully examine their assumptions, document their methods, and acknowledge biases to evaluate and contextualise their findings.

Sociology benefits from multiple truths and paradigms via diverse analytical frameworks and critical dialogue. Sociologists use methodological pluralism to triangulate perspectives and approach social phenomena.

Mindmap to remember this answer:

  • Multiple Truths and Perspectives in Sociology
      • Subjective experiences and interpretations
      • Competing versions of reality
  • Multiple Paradigms within the Discipline
      • Coexistence of different theoretical frameworks
      • Mutually incompatible schools of thought
  • Implications for Objectivity
      • Challenge to the notion of a single objective truth
      • Sociologists’ own values and biases
  • Continuous Pursuit of Objectivity
      • Self-reflexivity and critical examination
      • Transparent documentation of procedures
      • Acknowledging potential sources of bias
  • Enriching the Discipline
    • Diverse analytical frameworks
    • Encouraging critical dialogue
    • Methodological pluralism and triangulation
    • Comprehensive and nuanced understandings

Please log in to view this content.

Sample Questions Paper

Chapter 5: Doing Sociology: Research Methods – Sample Questions Paper

Time allowed: 2 hours Maximum Marks: 40

General Instructions:
(i) The question paper contains 14 questions.
(ii) All questions are compulsory.
(iii) Section A: Question numbers 1 and 2 are 1 mark source-based questions. Answers should not exceed 10-15 words.
(iv) Section B: Question numbers 3 to 9 are 2 marks questions. These are very short-answer type questions. Answers should not exceed 30 words.
(v) Section C: Question numbers 10 to 12 are 4 marks questions. These are short-answer type questions. Answers should not exceed 80 words.
(vi) Section D: Question numbers 13 and 14 are 6 marks questions. These are long-answer type questions. Answers should not exceed 200 words.

Section A

  1. What does the term ‘self-reflexivity’ mean in the context of sociological research methods?
  2. What is the main strength of the survey method according to the given passage?

Section B

  1. State any two principles of sample selection in survey research.
  2. Mention any two limitations of the participant observation method.
  3. What is the role of an ‘informant’ in participant observation studies?
  4. Define the term ‘objectivity’ in the context of sociological research.
  5. What is the purpose of constructing a genealogy in participant observation studies?
  6. What is the difference between quantitative and qualitative research methods?
  7. What is meant by the ‘multi-paradigmatic’ nature of social sciences?

Section C

  1. Explain the concept of ‘stratification’ in the context of survey research.

OR

Discuss the importance of village studies in the development of Indian sociology.

  1. Elucidate the significance of fieldwork in social anthropology.

OR

Examine the role of triangulation in sociological research methods.

  1. Assess the advantages and limitations of the interview method in sociological research.

OR

Analyse the factors that influence religious behaviour from a sociological perspective.

Section D

  1. Critically evaluate the notion of objectivity in sociological research. How do sociologists attempt to achieve objectivity in their studies?

OR

Describe the different styles of doing village studies in Indian sociology. Explain the reasons behind the prominence of village studies in the Indian context.

  1. Define the concept of ‘work’ as discussed in the given passage. Examine the changes in the nature and organisation of work in modern societies.

OR

Discuss the functionalist and conflict perspectives in understanding social institutions. Illustrate your answer with suitable examples.

error: Content is protected !!
Table Of Content
Scroll to Top