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Principles of Management

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FOUNDATION - BASICS OF THE CHAPTER

MCQ QUESTIONS - 1 MARKS

SHORT QUESTIONS ANSWER - 3/4 MARKS

LONG QUESTIONS ANSWER - 5/6 MARKS

Definition, Important Terms, Explanation in Simple Words for Fast Learning

PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT

Meaning of management Principles: A statement which reflects fundamental reality about some phenomena is known as a principle. Reason and results relationship is established by it and also serves as a guide to action and thought. Management Principles are statements of fundamental truth which provide a general course of action for managerial decision-making and action. Based on the outcomes of examination or experimental studies, the principles are found.

Nature of Management Principles:

Significance of Principles of management:

  1. Achieve results in feasible costs.
  2. Relation of Science.
  3. Effective administration
  4. Research and development
  5. Optimal use of resources
  6. Change in technology
  7. Social responsibility

Fayol’s Principles of Management:-

Henri Fayol (1841-1925) was a French Mechanical engineer who gave 14 general principles of Management which are as under:-

 

  1. Division of Work
  2. Authority and Responsibility 
  3. Discipline
  4. Unity of Command
  5. Unity of Direction
  6. Subordination of Individual Interest to General Interest
  7. Remuneration of Employees
  8. Centralization and Decentralization
  9. Scalar Chain
  10. Order
  11. Equity
  12. Stability of Personnel
  13. Initiative
  14. Esprit De Corps

 

Scientific Management:

F.W. Taylor, (1856-1915) an American mechanical engineer was in believe believed in analyzing the work scientifically and found one best way to do any work. His book “Principles of Scientific Management” was published in 1911.

 

Principle of scientific management:

  1. Science, not rule of thumb
  2. Harmony, not discord
  3. Cooperation, not individualism
  4. Maximum, not restricted output
  5. Separation of planning and operational work
  6. Scientific selection, training and development of workers
  7. Mental revolution
  8. Maximum prosperity for employers and employees.

Techniques of Scientific management:

Functional Foremanship:

Factory manager

PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT

Q1: Why is it said that principles of management are universal in application? [Delhi 2008; AI 2008C; CBSE Sample paper]

Or

Why is it said that management principles have universal applicability? [Foreign 2008; Delhi 2011]

Or

Why the principles of management are called universally applicable? [AI 2009]

Ans: Management principles are known as worldwide accepted as they are used in various kinds of organizations, businesses, non- businesses, private sector, public sector, and manufacturing and also in the service sector.

 

  1. Why the principles of management are called contingent? [Foreign 2009; Delhi, AI 2010]

Ans: Principles of management are called contingent since they’re not absolute or state in nature. One cannot apply the principles in every situations blindly. By keeping in view of the prevailing situations, they need to be applied. 

  1. Give one cause due to which principles of management do not provide handy solutions to all managerial glitches. [AI, Foreign 2010; Delhi 2011]

 

Ans: Business situations in the practical field are dynamic and complex.

  1. What does principle of ‘Initiative’ indicate? [Delhi 2009]

Ans: It indicates that encouragement should be given to the workers for their development and to carry out plans for improvement.

  1. Why did Fayol introduce the idea of ‘Gang Plank’ in the principle of ‘Scalar Chain’? [AI 2009]
    Ans: It is because a shorter route is provided by ‘Gang Plank’ and delay in communication is avoided during emergency.

 

  1. Give the meaning of ‘Mental Revolution’ as suggested by F.W. Taylor. [AI 2011]

Ans: It is that the attitude of management and employees changes in the direction of one another from competition to assistance. 

 

  1. A team spirit of unity and harmony should be promoted among employees by management. Mention the principle which suggests this.

Ans: Esprit de Corps

 

  1. According to Fayol, one principle refers to the right to give orders and obtain obedience whereas the other refers to the corollary of authority. State their names.
    Ans: Responsibility and Authority.

 

  1. List any two principles of ‘Scientific Management’ formulated by Taylor for managing an organization scientifically. [CBSE Sample Paper 2011]

Ans: (i) Science, not rule of thumb

         (ii) Harmony, not discord

 

  1. What do you mean by ‘Scientific Management’?

Ans: Scientific Management means to use scientific methods in decision-making to resolve management problems instead of depending on rule of thumb or trial and error methods.

 

  1. What is the main objective of fatigue study? [Delhi 2008; Delhi, AI, Foreign 2010]

Ans:  It means to determine the duration and frequency of rest intervals for a particular job to complete.

 

  1. What is the key aim of ‘Time Study’? [Delhi, AI, Foreign 2008; Delhi, AI, Foreign 2010]

Ans: The expected time required to achieve a well-defined job is determined by time study.

 

  1. What is the main aim of ‘Method Study’? [AI, Foreign 2008; Delhi 2010]

Ans: The main aim is to find the one best way to perform a job.

 

  1. What is the main aim of ‘Motion Study’? [AI 2008; Delhi, AI, Foreign 2010]

Ans: The main aim of the motion study is to eradicate the useless motions and take less time to whole job efficiently.

 

  1. Whose principles are more general in nature having input of flexibility?

Ans: Fayol’s principles

 

  1. Based on applicability, how can you differentiate between the principles of Fayol and Taylor?

Ans: The Fayol’s principles are universally applied whereas the principles of Fayol can be practical only in certain situations.

 

  1. State the main focus of Henri Fayol’s principles and F.W. Taylor’s principles.
    Ans: Henri Fayol’s principles are to advance the overall administration and on the contrary, Fayol’s principles are meant to increase productivity.

MCQ SHort Questions (1 Marks)

PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT

Q1: Why is it said that principles of management are universal in application? [Delhi 2008; AI 2008C; CBSE Sample paper]

Or

Why is it said that management principles have universal applicability? [Foreign 2008; Delhi 2011]

Or

Why the principles of management are called universally applicable? [AI 2009]

Ans: Management principles are known as worldwide accepted as they are used in various kinds of organizations, businesses, non- businesses, private sector, public sector, and manufacturing and also in the service sector.

 

  1. Why the principles of management are called contingent? [Foreign 2009; Delhi, AI 2010]

 

Ans: Principles of management are called contingent since they’re not absolute or state in nature. One cannot apply the principles in every situations blindly. By keeping in view of the prevailing situations, they need to be applied. 

 

  1. Give one cause due to which principles of management do not provide handy solutions to all managerial glitches. [AI, Foreign 2010; Delhi 2011]

 

Ans: Business situations in the practical field are dynamic and complex.

 

  1. What does principle of ‘Initiative’ indicate? [Delhi 2009]

Ans: It indicates that encouragement should be given to the workers for their development and to carry out plans for improvement.

 

  1. Why did Fayol introduce the idea of ‘Gang Plank’ in the principle of ‘Scalar Chain’? [AI 2009]
    Ans: It is because a shorter route is provided by ‘Gang Plank’ and delay in communication is avoided during emergency.

 

  1. Give the meaning of ‘Mental Revolution’ as suggested by F.W. Taylor. [AI 2011]

Ans: It is that the attitude of management and employees changes in the direction of one another from competition to assistance. 

 

  1. A team spirit of unity and harmony should be promoted among employees by management. Mention the principle which suggests this.

Ans: Esprit de Corps

 

  1. According to Fayol, one principle refers to the right to give orders and obtain obedience whereas the other refers to the corollary of authority. State their names.
    Ans: Responsibility and Authority.

 

  1. List any two principles of ‘Scientific Management’ formulated by Taylor for managing an organization scientifically. [CBSE Sample Paper 2011]

Ans: (i) Science, not rule of thumb

         (ii) Harmony, not discord

 

  1. What do you mean by ‘Scientific Management’?

Ans: Scientific Management means to use scientific methods in decision-making to resolve management problems instead of depending on rule of thumb or trial and error methods.

 

  1. What is the main objective of fatigue study? [Delhi 2008; Delhi, AI, Foreign 2010]

Ans:  It means to determine the duration and frequency of rest intervals for a particular job to complete.

 

  1. What is the key aim of ‘Time Study’? [Delhi, AI, Foreign 2008; Delhi, AI, Foreign 2010]

Ans: The expected time required to achieve a well-defined job is determined by time study.

 

  1. What is the main aim of ‘Method Study’? [AI, Foreign 2008; Delhi 2010]

Ans: The main aim is to find the one best way to perform a job.

 

  1. What is the main aim of ‘Motion Study’? [AI 2008; Delhi, AI, Foreign 2010]

Ans: The main aim of the motion study is to eradicate the useless motions and take less time to whole job efficiently.

 

  1. Whose principles are more general in nature having input of flexibility?

Ans: Fayol’s principles

 

  1. Based on applicability, how can you differentiate between the principles of Fayol and Taylor?

Ans: The Fayol’s principles are universally applied whereas the principles of Fayol can be practical only in certain situations.

 

  1. State the main focus of Henri Fayol’s principles and F.W. Taylor’s principles.
    Ans: Henri Fayol’s principles are to advance the overall administration and on the contrary, Fayol’s principles are meant to increase productivity.

Short Answers & Questions (3-4 Marks)

PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT

Q1. What do you understand by ‘Principles of Management’? [AI 2006]

Ans: A statement which reflects fundamental truth about some phenomena is known as a principle. Cause and effect relationship is established by it and also serves as a guide to action and thought. Management principles are statements of fundamental truth which provide guidelines for managerial decision-making and action. On the basis of examination or experimental studies, the principles are found.

 

Q2. What do you mean by ‘flexibility’ of principles of management?

Or

In the following statement, state the attribute of management principle, ‘The management principles are not inelastic prescriptions, which need to be shadowed absolutely’. Also describe two more attributes of management.

Ans: These are flexible guidelines which provide enough scope to fulfill the necessities of a given situation. Such guidelines can be utilized in different conditions and in various ways. A study is required regarding the nature of enterprise, its size, competitive situations, etc., before these principles can be applied.

Q3. Explain the principles of ‘discipline’ and ‘Esprit de Corps’. [Delhi 2006C]

Or

Explain the principle of discipline. [AI 2008]

Ans: 

  1. Discipline: In relations of management, discipline means to be obedient, to have proper conduct of relations with others, and to comply with the guidelines and protocols of the organizations. Discipline is obligatory for the even running of business. Both management and employees require discipline. At all points there has to be a good supervision, rules must be clear and penalties should be imposed with fairness to achieve discipline. 

 

  1. Esprit de Corps: It is team spirit where there should be mutual understanding amid workers and also agreement in the working group. To improve a sense of belonging amongst the participants of a work group, the managers need to take steps. Everyone comes forward to help others if exists a team spirit. It helps to develop mutual understanding. It provides an inspiration to work hard and to advance the quality of work. The need to use penalties of default is lessened, when esprit de corps is present. The need to contribute to the best of ability increases if the degree of discipline is higher. Subordinates need not be used by managers for their personal ends. The credit for the completed work by lower levels msut not be taken by the managers. 

 

Q4. If a member of staff is asked to accept instructions from two superiors, which management principle is violated? Describe the principle by giving a suitable example.

Ans: UNITY OF COMMAND is the principle states that subordinates should accept instructions and be answerable to one and only one superior. Therefore, orders from more than one superior should not be received by any employee. This principle is vital to avoid conflict and confusion. For instance, if an employee has more than one superior, each of them would want the action to be carried out according to his instructions. This would cause confusion to the employee as to whose instructions to be followed. It is easy to fix responsibility for mistakes, when there is Unity of Command.

 

Q5. An organization follows the principles of management. What could be the adverse effects of each of the bellow mentioned principles of management on the organization?

  • Unity of Command (ii) Order, and
  • Stability of tenure of personnel. [Delhi, AI 2005]

 

Ans: The adverse effects of the given management principles are as follows:

 

(i) Unity of command: Sometimes it is essential that an employee be given orders by more than one superior to finish certain work in time. This principle, in such situations, leads to more delays in work. It results in repetition of efforts and wastage of time.

 

(ii) Order: Rigidity is created in context of position of resources and manpower employed. It decreases the efficiency and effectiveness of manpower and resources, in certain situations, by the application of the principle of order. Because of the rigidity that is provided by the principle, boredom among employees is created.

 

(iii) Stability of tenure of personnel: It is essential for the organizations to discontinue those employees whose skills have become obsolete. If staff is not rotated at regular intervals, then they specialize in only one small aspect of the entire process of the organization and fail to become an all-rounder. In that manner, the employees do not get an opportunity to think at a macro level view of the business. 

 

Q6. Explain the following management principles:

  • Equity (b) Remuneration of employees  [CBSE Sample paper 2011]

 

Ans: (a) Principle of Equity: This principle of Equity states that similar treatment should be provided to people at similar positions. It suggests that while trade with the subordinates, the managers should be impartial and fair. For example, same pay rates and requisites should be paid to workers performing similar jobs.


  • Principle of remuneration of employees: To provide maximum satisfaction to the employees, remuneration and method of payment should be rational. Employees may be demotivated to perform their best if injustice prevails.

 

Q7. Mohan, a manager supposes his juniors to work for the pleasure of being in the organization. Which management principle is being ignored and why? [Delhi 2007]

 

Ans: Principle of Order is getting overlooked by Mohan as problems will be created to ensure effective utilization of manpower employed in the undertaking. He thinks if managers are happy and content, they will perform better.

 

Q8. Mohan, the manager of a business undertaking, is very lax with his fellow employees and subordinates. He does not provide them bounds or rules for reporting to work and accomplishment of assignments. Which principle of management is ignored and why? [AI 2007]

 

Ans: Science, not rule of thumb/fair day’s work/scientific task setting is being ignored by the manager. The subordinates have not been the parameters relating to work which might create a situation where workers will work below their capacity.

 

9.’There has to be no battle between management and workers’. State and describe the management principle given by Taylor by which this conflict can be avoided.

 

Ans: Harmony, not discord: In the views of Taylor, a mutual give and take and proper considerate must be prevalent among workers who work together to carry out a task in harmony, in group action. An enlightened attitude should be adopted by managers and the gains of productivity should be joint with the workers. On the other hand, workers need to work with discipline and loyalty.

 

  1. Explain any two principles of Taylor’s scientific management. [Delhi 2011]

Ans: Close assistance between employees and management: A cooperation should be present between employees and management. Only through cooperation among themselves, work can be carried out in line with the plans and performance standards. Taylor was in believe that both management and workforces had the same set of interests. Management needs greater production and workers need more pay. Workers can earn more by producing more. Like this, the mutual aid of workers is easy to secure. Management and workers should cooperate to increase profit or surplus instead of fighting among themselves.

Accessible relations between management and workforces: – A sense of good cooperation should be set between, the management and the workforces. Secure connections between both, bring out the work in line with plan and will get the best results from the desired work. Taylor favors the statement that management and workers have to have the same level of interest in the work. Management requires more production and workers wish for more remunerations. Workforces can earn more remunerations by fulfilling management’s requirement. Giving rewards to workers increases the chances of secure cooperation. Management and workforces should work parallel to increase profits/surplus rather than fighting amidst themselves. 

 

Harmony, not discord: In the views of Taylor, a mutual give and take and proper knowledge must be prevalent among workers who work together to carry out a task in harmony, in group action. A progressive attitude should be adopted by managers. On contrary, workers need to work in an organized manner and with loyalty.

Harmony, not discord: Taylor intensifies that, there has to be parallel coordination and shared understanding between the management and the workforces to gain a productive result, if any from the two will not work in solidarity the work will not produce positive results i.e. the work will not be beneficial for both. Management should share a part surplus from results with workers in a civilized manner. Whereas workforces should have honesty and determination throughout the work.

 

  1. Explain any two techniques of Taylor’s Scientific Management. [AI 2011]

Ans: The two techniques of Taylor’s Scientific Management are:

 

(i) Motion Study: The study of movement of organized body or machine needed to perform a job is known as motion study. Its objectives are eliminating motions and finding out ways to do a job with least movements. By reducing fatigue and wasteful movements on a job, the efficiency of workers can be increased. 

(ii) Fatigue Study: Physical and mental exhaustion due to continuous work leads to fatigue. Accidents, spoilage, absenteeism, and high labor turnover may be resulted due to fatigue. A fatigue study will calculate the time intervals and predict hours of rest. It helps to maintain operational effectiveness of workers without injury to health and happiness.

(ii) Fatigue Study: Physical and emotional tiredness caused due to continuous work induce fatigue.  Fatigue may cause accidents, insufficiency, spoilage, health problems, and high labor turnover. Fatigue study helps in calculating the proper time interval and amount of rest needed for one task. The rest and interval given to workforces will support them to retain their energy and work with the full energy again thus not harm the mental and physical health.

 

  1. Describe with example, the method of distinction piece rate system.

Ans: A method of payment of wages in which well-organized and inefficient employees are paid at diverse rates is known as differential piece wage system. The incompetent workforces are compensated less than the efficient workers. Based on the number of pieces produced, payment is given to workforces. If the making of the number of portions is higher than the specified limit then he is compensated a higher wage per piece on his total output. On the other hand, if the production is less than the required number then his wage is given at a lower rate per piece. It is known as differential piece rate plan due to different rates of different sets of workers.

 

For instance- An enterprise producing ball point pens giving ₹3 per piece, if in one day 25 or less than 25 pens are produced and ₹4 per piece, when more than 25 pens are produced. A worker who is producing 24 pens will get 24×3=₹72 whereas a worker producing 26 pens will get 26×4=₹104, i.e., difference of ₹32 (104-72) for producing just 2 more units.

 

  1. Differentiate between ‘Motion Study’ and ‘Time Study’ on the basis of 

(a)Meaning and (b) Purpose

Or

Describe the purpose of ‘Motion Study’ and ‘Time Study’.

 

Ans:

Basis of difference

Motion Study

Time Study

Meaning





Purpose

The study of movement of body or machine required for a job to be performed.


The main reason of the motion study is to eradicate the unusable motions and take less time to complete the job efficiently. By undertaking motion study, an attempt can be made to achieve the required rhythm by eliminating, combining or changing the sequence of some elements.

Study to observe and record the time required and each detailed element of an operation.


The main purpose of time study is to find out the exact time needed for each element of a man’s work. The standard time required to do a particular job can be fixed by this.

 

  1. (i)Mention and describe the management principle where workers are stimulated to improve and perform plans for the organization’s improvement.

    

    (ii)Name and explain the method of scientific management which aids in removing pointless diversity of products and thus consequences in saving cost. [Delhi, AI 2010]

 

Ans: 

(i) This principle is Initiative. In all work related matters, initiative has to be taken by all the employees at all levels. That doesn’t mean that people can do whatever they feel like. Discipline must be observed. To work better and harder, employees should be stimulated as an initiative from the management. Fayol states that managers should not yearn after their false vanity. Dynamic nature should be possessed by managers like being persuading, commanding, encouraging and simultaneously, their dignity should be kept intact. For example, for any matter of an organization, every employee has the right to contribute their suggestions but there is no room for disobedience once a decision has been taken about any issue.

 

(ii) Functional Foremanship: Taylor established the idea of functional foremanship to increase the quality of direction of workers. An employee is administered by several professional foremen under this. For example, speed bosses are a team of specialist foremen who look after matters relating to the speed of a work, repairs boss looks after repairs and breakdowns, etc. Different types of functional foremen were identified by Taylor. He believed that for supervising all functional matters, a single foreman would not be competent. Specialists should supervise each worker.

 

  1. Which technique of Taylor suggests that each work should be supervised by specialists? Name two specialists also. [Delhi 2005C]
    Ans: Functional Foremanship: Taylor developed the functional foremanship to advance the quality of supervision of workers. A worker is administered by several specialist foremen under this. For example, speed bosses are a group of specialist foremen who look after matters relating to the speed of a work, repairs boss looks after repairs and breakdowns, etc. Different types of functional foremen were identified by Taylor. Specialists should supervise each worker.

Long Answers & Questions (5-6 Marks)

PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT

Q1: Explain any four importance of Principles of management. [NCERT]

Or

Explain by giving any five reasons why proper understanding of management principles is necessary. [Delhi, AI, Foreign 2009]

Or

Explain how management principles:

(i) Provide useful perception into reality and        (ii) help in thoughtful decision making. [Delhi 2012]

Or

Explain how principles of management:

(i) Help in optimum utilization of resources and effective administration and

(ii) Help in thoughtful decision making. [Foreign 2012]

 

Ans: Importance of management principles: The management principles are extremely important in directing the organization towards taking the best course of action and the most appropriate decision.

  The following points highlight its significance: 

 

  • The principles of management on the basis of various theories and principles that have been revised over time. It is more suitable for a manager to make decisions on the basis of these principles to avoid any form of test and error. 

  

  • The principles helps in the optimal utilization of the accessible resources. It helps to predict the thorough reasons and results relationship. 


  • The management principles are based on the logic and not build faith. The decisions are based upon an objective assessment of the situation. 


  • These principles constitutes the basis of the management study in the educational institution. It provides the framework for the improvement of management as a subject. 

 

Q2: Explain Fayol’s principles of ‘scalar-chain’ and ‘discipline’ with the help of examples.
Ans: According to Fayol, Scalar chain is the chain of superiors designated form the top level of management to lower level of management, the line of authority is represented by this chain. All the managers in the origination is linked together in an origination from highest to the lowest and has subordinates below him but he is also a subordinate to some superiors. The Scalar chain principle defines a clear link between managers at all the level. According to this principle, the clear line of authority from top level to bottom level has to be there which links all the manager.

 

This can be shown by the below presented diagram:

 

Link

 

In case when D has to pass an information to G, D should send that information via C, B, A and then downwards E then to F and then finally that information will reach its destination G. But, it may cause delay, and hence to avoid that delay, Gang Plank is introduced by Fayol, it has been shown by dotted line in the above mentioned diagram.

 

Positive effects of Scalar chain are:

  1. Clearly states the chain of command.
  2. Chain of communication is well established.
  3. Well defined authority and responsibility relationships.

Discipline: In the reference to management, the word discipline means obedience, proper code of conduct, well-defined relationships and complying with the smooth running of business requires discipline. 

Not only the workers but the management also has to be in discipline by facilitating the good supervisors at all the existing levels of management, by clearly defining the rules and also the penalties should be improved with the fairness.

 

Q3: What is the meaning of scientific management?
Ans: Instead of depending on the rule of thumb, the scientific management refers to the use of scientific methods in the process of decision making. F.Y. Taylor is the father of scientific management. Scientific management mainly is made up of observation and analysis of each tasks, determination and analysis of each tasks, measurement of the standard of work, selecting and training men to perform their jobs.

 

Taylor’s principle of scientific management are:

  1. Replacing the rule of thumb with science: Scientific management includes the observation and analysis of every tasks and determination of the standards of work. According to the first scientific principle of management the “Development of a science for each element of a man’s work.” Should be implemented and the rule of thumb should be replaced. Taylor was in believe that efficiency can be maximized only with the help of involving science in the techniques of management.

 

  1. Close co-operation between employees and management: There must exists a proper coordination between the workers and the management in an organization to ensure that the works is carried out as per the plans and standards of the performance. According to the Taylor, the motive of employees and the management is same in some way, like, the workers wants to get paid more and the employer wants to get more production done and it can be noted that by producing more the workers can earn more. Hence, instead of fighting for the profit and output, there should be harmony in the motives.

 

  1. Maximum but not restricted output: The main aim of management should be maximization of output not restricting it to a confined level. The interest of both the parties should be involved in the level of production. 
  2. Division of responsibility between managers and workers: The authorities and the responsibility should be well-defined and clearly stated, the manager’s responsibility is to planning the work to be performed and the execution of it is the tasks of the workers.

 

  1. Harmony not discord: In the views of Taylor, a mutual give and take and proper considerate must be prevalent among workers who work together to carry out a task in harmony, in group action. An enlightened attitude should be adopted by managers and the gains of productivity should be joint with the workers. On the other hand, workers need to work with discipline and loyalty.

 

Q4: Explain the Taylor’s scientific management.
Ans: Techniques of Scientific Management:

 

  1. Time Study: Time study is the study to observe and record the time required and each detailed element of an operation. The main purpose of time study is to find out the exact time needed for each element of a man’s work. The standard time required to do a particular job can be fixed by this.

 

  1. Motion Study: The study of movement of organized body or machine needed to perform a job is known as motion study. Its objectives are eliminating motions and finding out ways to do a job with least movements. By reducing fatigue and wasteful movements on a job, the efficiency of workers can be increased.

 

  1. Standardization: It is the method of selection tools for the employees and also the ventilation, lightning and other working requirements should be arranged properly.

 

  1. Functional Foremanship: Taylor has identified various types of functional foreman. He said, only one single foreman may be incompetent performing all the management tasks and hence the different individuals has to be supervised by specialists.

 

  1. Simplification of work: Simplification of work refers to eliminating the various unnecessary tasks it creates the economy in the use of machines and tools needed. It helps to improve the quantity and reduce the costs and prices.

 

  1. Fatigue Study: Physical and mental exhaustion due to continuous work leads to fatigue. Accidents, spoilage, absenteeism, and high labor turnover may be resulted due to fatigue. A fatigue study will calculate the time intervals and predict hours of rest. It helps to maintain operational effectiveness of workers without injury to health and happiness.
  2. Method Study: This principle is concerned with the methods used while performing certain jobs. According to Taylor, there should be one best way to perform certain tasks.

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