fbpx

Skillyogi – Video Lectures In English & Bangla

Chapter 1 english cbse class 12 - a letter of god

You will learn the basics and the foundation of this chapter in English medium from an expert teacher this module has been organised in four segments

  • In the first segment you are going to learn the foundation and basics of this chapter
  • In the second module you are going to learn the multiple choice questions that is MCQ or high order thinking skills question of 1 marks
  • In the third segment you are going to learn the short answers and questions which is typically asked from the chapter in your examination which is explained in very easy and simple method
  • The fourth segment comprises of long answers and questions which is typically of 5 to 6 marks which will help you prepare well for your examination you also get sample questions and sample paper for better preparation

If you have any questions please feel free to contact our team for details and help

SUBSCRIBE NOW TO ACCESS ALL VIDEO LECTURES & STUDY MATERIAL

Foundation Lecture Covering Basics

Mention the topics which are covered in this video as pointers

Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ)

Mention the topics which are covered in this video as pointers

Solved Short Answers & Questions

Mention the topics which are covered in this video as pointers

Solved Long Answers & Questions

Mention the topics which are covered in this video as pointers

important terms and definition from nature and significance of management

Characteristics of Management 
  1. Goal oriented Process: It is a goal oriented process, which is undertaken to achieve already specified and desired objectives by proper utilization of available resources. 
  2. Pervasive: Management is universal in nature. It is used in all types of organisations whether economic, social or political irrespective of its size, nature and location and at every level.
  3. Multidimensional: It is multidimensional as it involves management of work, people and operations. Every organisation is established for doing some work like school provides education, a factory produces etc. The management has to ensure the participation of its people in the realisation of the organisation goal. Also management needs to conduct the various operations such as production, sale, purchase etc. 
  4. Continuous: Management is not a process which can be performed once and for all, but it is a continuous process. Functions of management like planning, organising, staffing, directing and controlling continuously need to be done. 
  5. Group Activity: It is a group activity since it involves managing and coordinating activities of different people as a team to attain the desired objectives. 
  6. Dynamic function: It is a dynamic function since it has to adapt according to need, time and situation of the changing environment in order to be successful, an organisation must change itself and its goals. For example, McDonalds made major changes in its ‘Menu’ to survive in the Indian market. 
  7. Intangible Force: Management is such a force that cannot be seen, only its presence can be felt. When the goals of an organisation are being realised in accordance with its plans, we can say that the management of the organisation is good. 
Chapter Name: Nature and Significance of Management Coming together is a beginning, Keeping together is a progress; Working together is a success – Henry Ford DIFFERENT SECTIONS OF THE CHAPTER
  1. Meaning. Definitions, Characteristics/Nature, Objectives and Importance of Management
2.Management as an Art, Science and as a Profession  3.Levels of Management-Top, Middle and Supervisory or Operational Level.
  1. Functions of Management.
5.Coordination.
  1. MEANING, DEFINITIONS, CHARACTERISTICS/NATURE, OBJECTIVES AND IMPORTANCE OF MANAGEMENT
 (a) Meaning of Management:   Management may be defined as creating the internal environment of an enterprise where individuals working together in groups can perform efficiently and effectively towards the attainment of group goals.  (b) Basic Definitions of Management: (i) According to Harold Koontz “Management is the art of getting things done through and with people in formally organised groups. It is the art of creating an environment in which people can perform as individuals and yet cooperate towards attainment of group goals”.  (ii) According to George R. Terry, “Management is a distinct process consisting of planning. organising, actuating and controlling, performed to determine and accomplish stated objectives by the use of human beings and other resources”.  (iii) According to James L. Ludney. “Management is principally a task of planning, coordinating. motivating, and controlling the efforts of others towards a specific objective”.  (iv) According to the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, “Management is the art and science of organising and directing human efforts applied to control the forces and utilise the materials of nature for the benefit of man” (v) In the words of C.S. George, “Management consists of getting things done through others: a manager is one who accomplishes objectives by directing the efforts of others”.  (vi) In the words of Koontz and O’Donnell, “Management is establishing an effective environment for people operating in formal organisational groups”, (vii) In the words of Kreitner, “Management is the process of working with and through others to effectively achieve organisational objectives by efficiently using limited resources in the changing environment”. (viii) In the words of Robert L Trewelly and M. Gene Newport, “Management is defined as the process of planning, organising, actuating and controlling an organisation’s operations in order to achieve coordination of the human and material resources essential in the effective and efficient attainment of objectives” (c) Characteristics/Nature of Management : (i)It has a distinct entity (ii) It is an inborn and acquired ability. (iii) It requires working with and through others:  (vi) It involves balancing effectiveness and efficiency (v) It involves social responsibility:  (vi) It integrates human and physical resources (vii) It is all pervasive (vii) It is a dynamic function (ix)iIt is an intangible force  (x) It influences behaviour (xi) It is a goal-oriented process.  (xii) It is a continuous process. (xii) It is a group activity, (d) Objectives of Management : Activities of an organisation are directed towards certain goals and ends which are known as Objectives. The actual performance is judged or compared on the basis of these objectives which form as a standard of performance. The different types of objectives are as follows: (i) Individual/Personal objectives (ii)Organisational objectives (iii) Social objectives Importance of Management : (i) Brings order to endeavours (ii) Critical ingredient in nation’s growth.  (iii) Overcoming competition. (iv) Provides effectiveness to human efforts  (v) Provides Judgement and vision. (vi) Integration with a changing environment. (vi) Management helps in achieving predetermined group goals.  (viii) Creates a dynamic organisation. (ix) Helps in the development of society. (x) It reduces cost (xi) Maintains equilibrium. (xii) Helps in achieving personal objectives  (xiii) It helps in optimum utilisation of resources (xiv) Establishes a sound organisation structure (xv) Essential for the prosperity of the society As said by Peter F. Drucker, “Management is the dynamic, life giving element in every business. Without it the resources of production remain resources and never become production”.

MCQ SHort Questions (1 Marks)

NATURE AND SIGNIFICANCE OF MANAGEMENT

MEANING, DEFINITIONS, CHARACTERISTICS/NATURE, OBJECTIVES AND IMPORTANCE OF MANAGEMENT

1. Mention one importance of management

Ans- It creates an energetic and active organisation

2. While maintaining a balance between effectiveness, management should achieve goals. Do you agree ?

Ans- Yes, I agree.

3. “Management is a group activity.”Why? [AI 2008C]
Or
Why is it said that “management is a group activity”. [Foreign 2009]

Ans- Management is a group activity since it is important to undertake any organised activity, one may conclude that management deals with group activity. It requires the use of group efforts in the pursuit & accomplish of predetermined objectives and goals.

4.“Management increases efficiency”. How? [Delhi 2009]

Ans- Management reduces costs and increases productivity by planning better, organising, administering, staffing and controlling the organisation’s activities.

5.”Management creates a dynamic organisation.” How? [Foreign 2009]

Ans- An organisation needs to maintain its competitive edge so management helps to make people adjust to the changes, hence helping to create a dynamic organisation.

6.List any two social objectives of management. [Delhi 2010; AI 2010, 11]

Ans- (i) Using eco-friendly methods of production
(ii) Providing basic services like schools and scholarships to employees

7. ‘Management is multidimensional.’ Enumerate any two dimensions of management. [CBSE Sample Paper 2011]

Ans- (i) Management of work
(ii) Management of people

8.What is meant by management ? [Delhi 2011]

Ans- Management means to create the internal environment of an organisation where individuals who work together in groups can perform efficiently and effectively towards the fulfillment of group goals.

MANAGEMENT AS AN ART, SCIENCE AND AS A PROFESSION

9. Mention one point which justifies management as an art

Ans- A manager applies his gained knowledge in a personalised and skillful manner in context of the realities of a given situation.

10. List one feature of art which is applicable to management.

Ans- Existence of theoretical knowledge

LEVELS OF MANAGEMENT – TOP, MIDDLE AND SUPERVISORY OR OPERATIONAL LEVEL

11. What are the three levels in the hierarchy of an organisation?
Or
List the levels of management.

Ans- Top, middle and lower management

12.Raghu is working as the link between top and lower level managers. He is working at which managerial level?

Ans- Raghu is working at middle level of management

13. Suppose the post of foreman in an organisation is offered to you. Name the level of management of this post.

Ans- Supervisory or Operational Management

14.What is the name given to the level of management in which the managers are responsible for executing and controlling the plans and strategies of the organisation?

Ans- Middle level of Management.

15. Name the level of management in which the managers are responsible for maintaining the safety standards and the output quality.

Ans- Supervisory or Operational level of Management.

FUNCTIONS OF MANAGEMENT

16. Before directing and controlling and after planning, name the management function which comes in between the two.

Ans- Organising and staffing

17. Name the management function which is concerned with finding the right people for the right job.

Ans- Staffing

18. State the management function which deals with leading, influencing and motivating employees to perform the tasks given to them.

Ans- Directing

Solved Short Questions & Answers (3-4 Marks)

Nature And Significance Of Management

MEANING, DEFINITIONS, CHARACTERISTICS/NATURE, OBJECTIVES AND IMPORTANCE OF MANAGEMENT

1. Describe the word ‘Management’ briefly.

Define Management. [NCERT]

Ans- “Management is the art of getting things done through and with people in formally organised groups.”-Harold Koontz

Management means to create the internal environment of an organisation where individuals who work together in groups can perform efficiently and effectively towards the fulfillment of group goals.

2. Explain the statement- “Management is Intangible.”

Ans- Management is considered as an intangible or unseen force. Management cannot be seen. Although it can be understood through orderliness, energetic employees, cheerful spirit and ample work output.
Quite often, the importance of management can be understood by its absence or by the presence of its immediate opposite mismanagement. The consequences of mismanagement are rapidly noticed; and thus, the identity of management is brought into clear focus.

MANAGEMENT AS AN ART, SCIENCE AND AS A PROFESSION

3. Define management as an art.

Solved Answer in Video https://youtu.be/V04wAuxhv5I (English)

Management as an art. The application of knowledge and personal skills to achieve desired results is referred to as Art.
The main features of art are

Existence of theoretical knowledge.
Personalised application
Practice and creativity is needed in Art.

On examination we find that management is an art. To manage various aspects of business, management prescribes general principles. Depending on the skill and experience of managers, the application of these principles depends. After a long practice, one becomes an efficient manager. Each student learns the principles of management but applies them differently depending on his practise and his creativity.

4. Is management a full fledged profession ? Give any three reasons in support of your ans. [Delhi 2010]

No, management is not a full fledged profession because of the following reasons:

There is no restriction on anyone being designated or appointed as manager in any business organisation.
Managers are not required to be members of professional associations like AIMA and follow their code of conduct.
The objective to have maximum profit may lead to sacrifice service motive

5.Is management a ‘Science’? Give any three reasons in support of your answer. [Delhi 2010]

No, management is not a science because :

(i)Management is concerned with human beings and human behaviour, so the outcomes of these experiments cannot be predicted or replicated accurately.

(ii) Application and use of principles of management is not universal.

(ii) The methods of observation which are followed by management are not cent percent objective

6.Is management an ‘Art’? Give any three reasons in support of your answer. [Delhi 2010]

Yes, management is an art because:

Theoretical knowledge exists.

There are innumerable theories of management, which state certain universal principles.

A manager applies this gained knowledge in a personalised and skillful manner in context of the realities of a given situation.

7. “Management is regarded as an Art by some, as Science or as an inexact Science by others. The truth seems to be somewhere in between”.
Explain the true nature of management in context to the given statement.

Management As An Art & Science
It is a matter of discussion whether management should be regarded as a science or an art or both. For this purpose, we have to assess different views, as given below-

Management as a Science
Science is a systematically organised body of knowledge based on proper findings and exact principles and is capable of verification. The generalisations are made on the basis of empirical studies and so they may be applicable in future also. In order to be recognised as science, a subject should have the following characteristics:

A systematised body of knowledge including concepts, principles and theories.
Cause and effect relationships should be established.
Enquiry methods should be scientific.
Principles need to be universally accepted and also variable.

Management is related with human beings just like social science and like physics and chemistry, it is not an exact science. Though not entirely but management is like social science, as it is based on a systematised body of knowledge; it is dependent on the cause and effect relations and not on personal likes and dislikes of managers. Just like science, principles of management are obtained from observations and experiments.

Management as an Art
Art depends on the use of knowledge and skills. Through the application of skill, desired results are obtained. Thus the characteristics of art are:
It symbolises practical knowledge.
In a particular field of human activity, it symbolises personal skills
It helps to obtain desired/predetermined results.
Creative in nature

Management can be considered as an art as it requires use of knowledge and personal skills to obtain required results. While dealing with people, every manager has to use certain knowledge and skills to obtain desired results. Just as art, management requires certain abilities, skills and judgement and a continuous practice of management concepts and principles. Hence it is clear that management is both a science and art from the above discussion.

LEVELS OF MANAGEMENT – TOP, MIDDLE AND SUPERVISORY OR OPERATIONAL LEVEL

8.Who Are Considered As The Pinnacle Management In A Business Enterprise ?

Top Level Management

Top management comprises managers who are at the highest level in the hierarchy of management. The members of this level are the Board of Directors, Chief Executive and the Departmental Heads.

The activities of this level are concerned with establishing overall, long term goals and ways of achieving these. Top management is also concerned with maintaining connection with the outside world.

For example, with the government, trade unions, etc., setting up overall policies, and providing direction and guidance to the organisation as a whole. It is held responsible for the overall success or failure of the organisation.

9.Who Are Considered As The Middle Management In A Business Enterprise ?

Middle level management

This level comprises departmental managers.

Managers of this level perform the main function of linking the top and supervisory level of management. They pass on orders, suggestions, and decisions towards the lower level and carry the problems and suggestions to the higher level.

Moreover, this level describes and explains the policy decisions made at the upper level to the lower levels. They circulate detailed instructions to lower levels of management and synchronize the activities of various units and divisions within the same department.

Their tasks include taking departmental decisions and motivating lower level managers towards better performance.

10. Mention The Three Levels Of Management. Describe Any Three Functions Of The Operative Level Management

State Any Two Designations Given To The First Line Managers.

Three levels of management
Top level management
Middle level management
Supervisory/Operative management

Supervisory/Operative Management

The lowest level of management comprises first line supervisors. Generally they have designations such as superintendent, section officer supervisor, foreman, etc.

They directly communicate with the workers, clerk, salesmen, etc. They are assigned with the task of getting the work done by operatives or workers who are actually doing the work.
They are mainly worried about the operative jobs and the management of workers. Below this level, there are no managers. Managers at this level look after the work of operatives to make sure that it is of desired quality and is completed in time.

11. Explain Briefly Any Five Functions Of Middle Level Management In An Organisation

State Any Two Functions Of Middle Level Management. [Delhi 2005; Ai 2005, 06, 08c; Foreign 2005]

Functions Of Middle Level Management Are:

To produce a link between the top level management and supervisory level of management.
Elucidation of policies shaped by top management
To prepare the organisational set up in their departments for attaining the objectives inferred in various business policies.
To find out the suitable, operative and supervisory personnel and to allot duties and responsibilities to them for the implementation of the plans of the concerned departments.
To compile and issue detailed instructions about the operations to the assistants and operatives to focus and lead their efforts accordingly.

To motivate the personnel for higher yield and to reward them for their efficiency, capacity or caliber.
Collection of reports, statistical information and other records about the work turned out in specific departments and forwarding the same with their observations to the top management
New and revised policies are recommended to the top management for their departments to perform better.

12.What Do You Understand By ‘Levels Of Management’?

Top Level Management

Top management comprises managers who are at the highest level in the hierarchy of management. The members of this level are the Board of Directors, Chief Executive and the Departmental Heads.

The activities of this level are concerned with establishing overall, long term goals and ways of achieving these.

Top management is also concerned with maintaining connection with the outside world. For example, with the government, trade unions, etc., setting up overall policies, and providing direction and guidance to the organisation as a whole. It is held responsible for the overall success or failure of the organisation.

Middle Level Management.
This level comprises departmental managers. Managers of this level perform the main function of linking the top and supervisory level of management. They pass on orders, suggestions, and decisions towards the lower level and carry the problems and suggestions to the higher level.

Moreover, this level describes and explains the policy decisions made at the upper level to the lower levels. They circulate detailed instructions to lower levels of management and synchronize the activities of various units and divisions within the same department. Their tasks include taking departmental decisions and motivating lower level managers towards better performance.

Supervisory/Operative Management.
The lowest level of management comprises first line supervisors. Generally they have designations such as superintendent, section officer supervisor, foreman, etc.
They directly communicate with the workers, clerk, salesmen, etc.
They are assigned with the task of getting the work done by operatives or workers who are actually doing the work. They are mainly worried about the operative jobs and the management of workers. Below this level, there are no managers. Managers at this level look after the work of operatives to make sure that it is of desired quality and is completed in time.

13.The manager of the northern division of a large corporate housework in the organisation is Ritu. What are the basic functions that she has to perform ?

Dheeraj is working as “Operations Manager” in Tifco Ltd. He is working at which managerial level? List any four functions that he has to perform as Operations Manager in this company.

Rajat is working as ‘Regional Manager’ in TIFCO Ltd. At which level is he working?Mention any four functions he has to perform as ‘Regional Manager’ in this company

Ans: Ritu, Dheeraj and Rajat, all are working in the middle level of management of the organisation.
Functions of middle level management are:

To produce a link between the top level management and supervisory level of management.
Elucidation of policies shaped by top management
To prepare the organisational set up in their departments for attaining the objectives inferred in various business policies.
To find out the suitable, operative and supervisory personnel and to allot duties and responsibilities to them for the implementation of the plans of the concerned departments.

To compile and issue detailed instructions about the operations to the assistants and operatives to focus and lead their efforts accordingly.
To motivate the personnel for higher yield and to reward them for their efficiency, capacity or calibre.
Collection of reports, statistical information and other records about the work turned out in specific departments and forwarding the same with their observations to the top management
New and revised policies are recommended to the top management for their departments to perform better.

FUNCTIONS OF MANAGEMENT

14. Explain in brief, the functions of management.

“A series of continuous correlated functions with no predetermined sequence is known as management.” Justify.

Functions Of Management
Functions of management are correlated and overlapping, but they may be grouped into the following five categories

Planning- Planning means to make decisions well in advance and being specific in what needs to be done, when and how.

Organising- Organising means to identify activities which needs to be carried out, grouping activities which are similar and allocating them to different departments, creating job positions at different levels and exhibiting mutual relationship between them in terms of authority and responsibility

Staffing- The staffing function is important for the recruitment and selection of able and skilled personnel for various jobs in the enterprise

Directing- Directing involves functions of inspection, inspiration, guidance and communication.

Controlling- The process of ensuring that activities are in compliance with the predetermined goals falls under this category.

COORDINATION

15. Describe the term coordination. How does it help in activating each function of management?

Define Coordination. [Foreign 2007]

Meaning of Coordination

As a function of management, coordination refers to the task of amalgamating the activities of separate units of an enterprise to achieve the goals of the organisation efficiently. The objective of coordination is to make sure that the goals of units and subunits are followed in harmony with each other keeping in view the organisational goals as a whole.

16. Coordination is regarded as the essence of management rather than a separate function of manager.” Do you agree with this statement ? Give reasons [NCERT]

“Coordination is the essence of management”. Explain this statement briefly [AI 2006]

“Coordination is not a separate function of management. It is the essence of management.” Give reason in support of your answer [AI 2008C]

“Coordination is not a separate function of management. It is the essence of management.” Explain with the help of a suitable example. (Delhi, Al, Foreign 2009)

Ans: Yes, I agree with the statement

As a regular function, all managers must coordinate with departments, units and individuals about the work assigned to them. There is likely to be duplication, overlapping, and even chaos in the enterprise if there is no harmony and integration of activities. According to Mary Parker Follet, right from the planning stage, coordination function begins to perform, where coordination is sought between plans of each department and master plan of the organisation. This is also coordination between available resources and objectives.

Coordination is sought between the human resources and the activities which needs to be performed, at the organising stage. Coordination is needed between human resources, need and selection of employees and also between abilities and skills of workers with the jobs assigned to them, at the staffing stage. Harmonious and smooth performance of duties is ensured by direction. Coordination between standard performance and actual performance is ensured by controlling. Therefore, rather than a separate function, coordination is regarded as the essence of management.

17. Examine the element of coordination from the point of effective management. [Delhi, Al, Foreign 2009]

What is meant by ‘Balancing in coordination ? [Delhi, Foreign 2011]

Explain Integration’ as an element of coordination. [Delhi, 2006]

Mention the process that a manager undertakes to synchronise activities of different departments and describe any four of its features.

Ans: Elements of Coordination:

Integration- It includes all the diverse and unrelated interests amalgamated together to complete the job/work effectively and efficiently.

Balancing- A balance between the activities of the two departments or divisions are maintained by providing support and guidance of one activity to another to get the best results.

Timing- Scheduling of operations in suitable order fall under this category.

18. In large organisations there is the need/ importance of coordination. Explain why.

What is meant by ‘Coordination’ ? Explain any two points of its importance in management. [Foreign 2012]

Size of the organisation- In large organisations, difficulties are often created in integrating activities of scores of people. Individual behaviour is rational and cannot be predicted. Amalgamation of group goals and individuals need to be done through coordination.

Functional differentiation- The functions of an organisation are generally divided into departments, divisions, sections, etc. By functioning separately from other units, each unit tries to perform its mission. In such circumstances, coordination is important to work effectively in the organisations.

Specialisation- A number of specialists are employed by organisations. It may lead to conflict if they are allowed to work without coordination. So there must be some process by which coordination is maintained between various specialists and also among the specialists and the others in an organisation.

19. Differentiate between Coordination and Cooperation:

S. no.

Basis

Coordination

Cooperation

(a)

(b)

(c)

Scope

Nature

Inter-

dependence

Has a wider scope as it includes cooperation

 

A conscious and deliberate effort

 

Coordination is dependent on cooperation as it is incomplete without it

The first step towards establishing coordination so has a narrow scope

A voluntary effort

Cooperation also depends on coordination as it is meaningless without it

Shopping Cart
Open chat