Chapter 1: Social Structure, Stratification and Social Processes in Society – CBSE NCERT Sociology Class 11 Notes

Class 11 Sociology Notes for Chapter 1: Social Structure, Stratification and Social Processes in Society
Get Class 11 Sociology Notes, Questions and Practice Papers for Chapter 1: Social Structure, Stratification and Social Processes in Society. Candidates who want to pass Class 11 with a good grade can use this article for Notes, Questions, and Practice Papers. We have provided a link below to access the Class 11 Sociology Notes, Important Questions and Practice Paper on the topic Sociology and Society. You can practise the questions and check your answers using the solutions provided after each question.

Chapter Definitions and Short Notes

Chapter 1: Social Structure, Stratification and Social Processes in Society – Short Notes and Definitions

Understanding Social Structure and Stratification

Social structure and stratification refer to the way society is organised into different groups and layers. The chapter discusses how an individual’s position within these layers affects their access to resources, lifestyle choices, and overall life opportunities.
This organisation can limit or enhance individual actions based on their social class, gender, race, or other attributes. It also explores the relationship between personal experiences and wider societal contexts, showing how personal choices are often shaped by social factors.

Short Pointers:

  • Social Structure: Refers to the arrangement of society into different groups and systems.
  • Social Stratification: Involves the layering of these groups based on factors like class, gender, or race, affecting people’s access to resources.
  • Impact on Individuals: A person’s location within these structures influences their lifestyle, education, health access, and more.
  • Sociological Imagination: Concept by C. Wright Mills emphasises the link between individual experiences and broader social forces.
  • Central Concerns: Discusses the extent to which social structures and stratification restrict or enable individual freedom and choice.
  • Social Processes: Examines how structures and stratification affect social interactions like cooperation, competition, and conflict.

Social Structure and Stratification

Social structure refers to the organised way society is structured, not randomly, but in a patterned manner that affects how people behave and relate to each other. These patterns, formed by repeated actions and relationships across time and space, define the rules and norms in society, like those seen in family or educational institutions.
Social stratification is a part of this structure, describing how inequalities are systematically distributed among groups based on class, race, gender, etc., affecting individuals’ access to resources and opportunities. This concept underlines that while individuals can influence social structures, these structures also place constraints on individual actions.

Example: The text mentions schools and families as examples where specific behaviours and traditions are repeated, forming a structured environment even as members change.

Short Pointers:

  • Definition of Social Structure: Organised patterns in society that guide behaviour and relationships.
  • Social Stratification: Describes how society is divided into groups with unequal access to resources and power.
  • Patterned Inequalities: Inequalities are not random but are based on group membership and tend to be passed down through generations.
  • Examples Given: Schools with their traditions and rules; family structures with set roles and expectations.
  • Impact of Structures: These structures shape individuals’ opportunities, from the schools they attend to the social status they inherit.
  • Individual Agency vs. Structure: While individuals can effect changes within these structures, they are also limited by the existing social rules and norms.

Understanding Social Processes in Sociology

Sociology critically examines common sense knowledge, which is often unexamined and accepted without question. Unlike common sense, sociological perspectives delve deep and challenge assumptions, such as the belief that human nature alone explains social behaviours like competition, cooperation, and conflict.
Sociology aims to explain these behaviours through the social structures of society, considering different theoretical perspectives like functionalism and conflict theory. Functionalism views social behaviours as parts of a system working to maintain society, while conflict theory focuses on power disparities and the inherent conflicts and competitions within social structures.

Example: The definition discusses how the conflict perspective might view cooperation in different societal contexts, for instance, in both simple societies and more complex ones like feudal or capitalist societies. Here, cooperation can also involve conflict, especially in societies where a surplus is produced and classes exist. This leads to situations where, despite cooperation, there are underlying conflicts due to unequal social positions, such as between a factory owner and a worker.

Short Pointers:

  • Sociology scrutinises and questions common sense knowledge.
  • It rejects the idea that human nature alone drives social behaviours.
  • Social behaviours are analysed through the lens of societal structures.
  • Key perspectives include functionalism (focuses on society’s needs and functions) and conflict theory (focuses on power disparities and conflicts).
  • Functionalists see social roles as contributing to society’s stability.
  • Conflict theorists view social structures as sources of competition and inequality.

Cooperation and Division of Labour in Sociology

Cooperation is fundamental to human survival and is also observed in the animal kingdom, although human cooperation should be understood through sociological perspectives rather than purely biological instincts.
Emile Durkheim and Karl Marx offer contrasting views on this topic within sociology. Durkheim highlighted the role of social solidarity, distinguishing between mechanical solidarity (based on sameness) in simpler societies and organic solidarity (based on specialised roles) in complex societies.
Marx, on the other hand, emphasised that social structures and consciousness shape human cooperation, which results in enforced cooperation in class-based societies where workers may feel alienated. This alienation contrasts with the autonomy craftspeople like weavers or potters experience.

Example: The example of Indian adaptation to the English language during British colonialism and the emergence of “Hinglish” illustrates how societies adjust and transform under external influences, showcasing a form of cooperation that also changes the social fabric.

Short Pointers:

  • Cooperation is essential for human and animal survival.
  • Durkheim views cooperation through the lens of social solidarity: mechanical in simple societies and organic in complex ones.
  • Marx contrasts human cooperation with animal behaviour, emphasising consciousness and the impact of social structures.
  • In Marx’s view, cooperation in class-based societies can lead to alienation, unlike the autonomy seen in traditional crafts.
  • Examples of “Hinglish” demonstrate societal adaptation and transformation through cooperation under colonial influence.

Competition as a Social Construct

Competition is often viewed as a natural and universal behaviour but is a social construct that became prominent at a specific historical moment, particularly with the rise of capitalism. This view contrasts with the assumption that competition is inherent in human nature.
Sociology interprets competition as a result of social and economic structures, not just individual instincts. In modern societies, competition is tied to capitalism, emphasising efficiency, profit maximisation, and the survival of the fittest in various domains like business and education.

Example: The anecdote about a school teacher in Africa highlights that competition is not a universally accepted norm. The teacher expected enthusiasm for a competitive race for a chocolate prize, but the children showed anxiety and disapproval, preferring activities that promoted cooperation and collective enjoyment instead of individual competition.

Short Pointers:

  • Competition is not a natural behaviour but a social construct.
  • It became significant with the development of capitalist societies.
  • Competition in capitalism focuses on efficiency, specialisation, trade expansion, and productivity.
  • It assumes that individuals compete equally, which overlooks social inequalities.
  • Example: African school children rejecting a competitive game, showing cultural differences in the perception of competition.

Conflict and Cooperation in Sociological Perspective

Conflict in sociology refers to the clash of interests, often arising from resource scarcity, and influenced by factors such as class, caste, gender, and ethnicity. While conflicts are a constant across societies, their visibility and nature change with social development. Sociological studies challenge the notion that conflicts are naturally occurring or new phenomena, instead presenting them as outcomes of specific social and economic structures. Furthermore, cooperation within these conflicts often appears in forms that might be enforced or involuntary, particularly in hierarchical relationships such as family or labour relations, where apparent harmony might mask deeper underlying conflicts.

Example: The text describes a situation within Indian households where women, despite facing discrimination, participate in and even reinforce certain patriarchal norms to secure long-term security and mitigate risks. This involves covert actions like secret lending, borrowing, and subtle negotiation of gender roles, indicating a complex layer of covert conflict under the surface of overt cooperation.

Short Pointers:

  • Conflict arises from resource scarcity and varies by social factors (class, caste, etc.).
  • Conflicts are shaped by social structures, not just natural instincts.
  • Visibility and the nature of conflicts change with social development and greater assertion of rights.
  • Cooperation in the context of conflict may be enforced, with individuals showing overt cooperation in covert conflicts.
  • Examples include Indian women in households subtly negotiating patriarchal structures to ensure their security.

Land Conflicts and Technological Impact on Cooperation

Land conflicts often arise from disputes over property ownership and the lack of formal legal documentation, leading to conflicts that can escalate into violence. These conflicts are influenced by social, economic, and political dynamics within a community.
Additionally, technological advancements can change the nature of cooperation in agricultural practices by reducing the need for collective human and animal labour.

When more advanced technology is employed, fewer resources are required, which can decrease the necessity for cooperation among community members.

Example: The conflict between Harbaksh’s successor Ganpat and Nathu Ahir over land ownership illustrates how informal agreements and lack of legal documentation lead to disputes. Ganpat used his position as a police constable to influence local law enforcement and regain the land after a physical and community-driven confrontation.

Short Pointers:

  • Land conflicts can arise from informal agreements and disputes over ownership.
  • Lack of formal documentation can prevent legal resolution of disputes.
  • Technological advances in agriculture can reduce the need for cooperative labour.
  • Examples of Ganpat and Nathu show how personal influence and community interventions can resolve conflicts outside the legal system.

The Interplay of Social Processes and Structural Stratification

This chapter explores how social structures and stratification influence the social processes of cooperation, competition, and conflict within society. While these processes are distinct, they frequently coexist, overlap, and sometimes manifest in hidden forms, such as through forced cooperation. The relationship underscores how societal organisation impacts individual and group interactions.

Short Pointers:

  • Social structures and stratification shape cooperation, competition, and conflict.
  • These processes, although distinct, often coexist and influence each other.
  • Forced cooperation is an example of how these processes can be concealed within societal norms.

NCERT Solutions

NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Sociology Chapter 1: Social Structure, Stratification and Social Processes in Society

Discuss the different tasks that demand cooperation with reference to agricultural or industrial operations.

Answer: Social cooperation—people working together to achieve goals—is essential. Cooperation is essential for smooth operations and goal achievement in agriculture and industry.

Agricultural societies depend on each other for tasks. For instance, ironsmiths supply farming tools, while shopkeepers supply seeds, fertilisers, and pesticides. A group plants seeds, cuts crops, and does other tasks in the fields during sowing and harvesting. Without help, the farmer cannot achieve these goals.

In industrial operations, specialisation and division of labour require worker-management cooperation. Everyone has a role and must work together to produce goods and services efficiently. In a factory, production, quality control, and packaging workers must work together to make a product.

In agriculture and industry, cooperation is often required. Workers may have common goals, but conflicts of interest may define their relationships. Durkheim’s division of labour theory emphasises the need for cooperation to run these systems and meet societal needs.

Mindmap to remember this answer:

    • Cooperation: essential social process
      • Individuals or groups working together
      • Achieving common goals
  • Agricultural societies:
      • Interdependence among people
      • Ironsmiths provide tools and equipment
      • Shopkeepers supply seeds, fertilisers, pesticides
      • Group work in fields for sowing, harvesting
      • Farmer cannot achieve goals alone
  • Industrial operations:
      • Specialisation and division of labour
      • Cooperation among workers and management
      • Specific roles in different departments
      • Coordinated efforts for efficient production
  • Enforced cooperation:
      • Shared goals
      • Potential conflicts of interest
  • Durkheim’s theory:
    • Division of labour fulfils societal needs
    • Cooperation essential for functioning systems

Is cooperation always voluntary or is it enforced? If enforced, is it sanctions or is the strength of norms that ensure cooperation? Discuss with examples.

Answer: Cooperation in society can be voluntary or enforced, depending on the circumstances. Voluntary cooperation happens when people work together willingly to achieve shared goals, like when family members all contribute to the family’s prosperity.

However, cooperation is not always voluntary. In societies divided by class, caste, or gender, some groups face disadvantages and discrimination. The dominant groups maintain this unequal system through cultural norms and sometimes even force. In these cases, the disadvantaged groups may cooperate, but it is enforced rather than voluntary.

For example, in the issue of women’s property rights, many daughters don’t claim their full share in their parents’ property. They cooperate by giving up their rights, but this cooperation is enforced. They fear that claiming their share would damage their relationship with their brothers. The daughters have no real choice if they want to maintain family harmony.

So while cooperation is necessary for society to function, we have to look at whether it is truly voluntary or happening under social pressures and constraints. The nature of cooperation often depends on a person’s position in the social structure and system of stratification. Those with less power and privilege may have cooperation forced upon them rather than doing it completely willingly.

Mindmap to remember this answer:

  • Cooperation: voluntary or enforced — Voluntary: working together willingly for shared goals — Example: family members contributing to family prosperity — Enforced: cooperation due to social inequalities — Societies divided by class, caste, gender — Dominant groups maintain unequal system through norms, force — Disadvantaged groups cooperate, but not by choice — Example: women giving up property rights to maintain family ties
  • Whether cooperation is voluntary or enforced depends on: — Person’s position in social structure — System of stratification — Less privileged groups may have cooperation forced on them

Can you find illustrative examples of conflict drawn from Indian society? Discuss the causes that led to conflict in each instance.

Answer:  Conflict and its causes are common in India. I’ve studied many social conflicts as a student.

Disagreements over religion cause community conflict. Diversity and religion in India can cause conflict and violence. Heritage, political manipulation, economic inequality, and religious intolerance cause communal conflict.

Indian society also faces caste-based violence and discrimination. Despite legal restrictions, many Indian caste systems shape social hierarchies. Lower castes seeking rights and challenging upper caste dominance cause conflict. Discrimination, social stratification, and unequal resources and opportunities cause caste conflict.

Regional and linguistic conflicts in India result from competition for political power, resources, and recognition. Demand for linguistically distinct states has caused conflict. These conflicts stem from regional differences, historical grievances, and autonomy.

In conclusion, Indian conflict has many causes and effects. Understanding social inequality, discrimination, and historical grievances helps resolve conflict. Students must promote dialogue, inclusivity, and social justice to build a peaceful, equitable society.

Mindmap to remember this answer:

  • Examples of conflict in Indian society
      • Communal conflict
        • Causes: religious differences, historical factors, political manipulation, economic disparities, lack of understanding and tolerance
      • Caste-based conflict
        • Causes: social stratification, unequal access to resources and opportunities, discriminatory practices
      • Regional and linguistic conflict
        • Causes: regional disparities, historical grievances, demand for self-determination and autonomy
  • Understanding conflict
      • Complex social phenomenon with multiple causes and manifestations
      • Need to address underlying factors: social inequalities, discrimination, historical grievances
  • Building a harmonious society
    • Promote dialogue, inclusivity, and social justice
    • Role of students in understanding and addressing conflict

Write an essay based on examples to show how conflicts get resolved.

Answer: All societies have conflicts. They occur when people disagree. Conflicts need not be destructive. Positive resolutions promote understanding and cooperation.

Conflict resolution has happened in my life. My brother and I often argued over computer use and TV shows. Sometimes we yelled and fought. We resolved conflicts better thanks to our parents. Speak calmly, listen, and compromise were advised. Later, my brother and I learned to negotiate and resolve conflicts peacefully.

Similar things happened at school. When friends break up, rival cliques form. Mediation by teachers and counsellors is common. They get parties to sit down, vent, and reconcile. Amazing turnarounds have made bitter enemies friends.

I believe negotiation and good faith win-win solutions can transform destructive social conflicts. Warring nations can reach peace through diplomacy and talks. Hard work can resolve long-standing conflicts, as history shows.

Although inevitable, conflicts don’t have to destroy relationships or societies. When all parties show empathy, communicate honestly, and compromise, conflicts can strengthen human connections. I learned this from my own experiences and think it applies globally. With the right approach and intentions, conflict can become cooperation.

Mindmap to remember this answer:

  • Conflicts are natural part of society
  • Caused by differing interests/views
  • Don’t have to be destructive
  • Can be resolved positively
  • Personal example: conflicts with sibling
  • Resolved through calm talking, listening, compromising
  • School example: conflicts between friend groups/cliques
  • Mediated by teachers/counsellors
  • Sides brought together to reconcile
  • Societal example: conflicts between countries/groups
  • Can give way to diplomacy, peace talks, mutual understanding
  • Takes work but provides inspiring resolutions
  • Conflicts inevitable but don’t have to ruin relationships
  • Empathy, dialogue and searching for middle ground is key
  • Conflicts can become opportunities for stronger human connections
  • Applies from personal to global level
  • With right approach, we can usually move from conflict to cooperation

Imagine a society where there is no competition. Is it possible? If not, why not?

Answer: I struggle to imagine a society without competition. According to my research, competition shapes societies and social interactions. Many aspects of life involve competition and cooperation.

All societies have unequal groups and individuals. Financial status, resources, and opportunities vary. Social stratification drives competition for jobs, education, power, and prestige. These are available depending on social status. People cooperate in a competitive environment.

Contemporary societies seem built on competition. Capitalism, the dominant economic system, relies on free markets, private ownership, and profit maximisation. This system drives companies to outperform and workers to compete for better-paying jobs. So economic life involves competition.

Competition varies by society and intensity. Competition may have been lower in societies with less economic inequality and division of labour. Some cultures prefer cooperation to competition. Imagining a complex society without competition is difficult.

Even cooperative societies have competitive mate selection, status hierarchies, and political power. Groups vie for resources and power. While degrees vary, competition seems to be a social universal. A world without competition seems ideal. Balance and grounding competition in fairness, equal opportunity, and social responsibility are difficult. However, eliminating it may be impossible.

Mindmap to remember this answer:

  • Competition integral to societies and social interactions
  • Exists alongside cooperation
  • Society stratified into unequal positions
  • Different access to resources and opportunities
  • People always competing in this framework
  • Competition built into capitalism
  • Free markets, private ownership, profit motive
  • Businesses compete, workers compete for jobs
  • Intensity of competition varies across societies
  • Some societies more equitable in past
  • Some cultures value cooperation over competition
  • But complex societies always have some competition
  • Compete for mates, status, political power
  • Groups compete with other groups
  • Total lack of competition seems impossible
  • Need to balance competition with ethics and fairness
  • Goal is managed competition, not zero competition

MCQ Questions

Chapter 1: Social Structure, Stratification and Social Processes in Society – MCQ Questions

  1. What is the primary implication of social structure in a society, according to the textbook?
(a) It dictates the economic wealth of individuals.(b) It organises society in specific patterns of relationships and behaviours.
(c) It is a random assortment of events and actions.(d) It ensures equality among all social members.

Answer: (b) Social structure organises society in specific patterns of relationships and behaviours.

  1. According to the textbook, how does social stratification affect individual opportunities?
(a) It has no significant effect on individuals’ lives.(b) It creates equal opportunities for all social members.
(c) It leads to structured inequalities that affect individuals’ access to resources.(d) It decreases the quality of life for all members of society.

Answer: (c) Social stratification leads to structured inequalities that affect individuals’ access to resources.

  1. What role does ‘social stratification’ play within the broader social structure, as discussed in the textbook?
(a) It reduces the instances of social conflict.(b) It ensures that social mobility is easy and accessible for all.
(c) It characterises a pattern of inequality within the social system.(d) It promotes individual freedom and choices.

Answer: (c) Social stratification characterises a pattern of inequality within the social system.

  1. How does the textbook describe the relationship between social processes and social structure?
(a) Social processes are independent of social structure.(b) Social processes, such as cooperation, competition, and conflict, are shaped by social structure.
(c) Social structure is a consequence of social processes.(d) There is no relationship; they are mutually exclusive concepts.

Answer: (b) Social processes, such as cooperation, competition, and conflict, are shaped by social structure.

  1. According to the textbook, what does Emile Durkheim suggest about society’s influence on an individual?
(a) Individuals have absolute freedom to act against social norms.(b) Society exerts a social constraint that limits individual actions.
(c) Society’s structure has no real impact on its members.(d) Individual actions are the sole architects of societal structure.

Answer: (b) Society exerts a social constraint that limits individual actions.

  1. Which concept discussed in the textbook refers to the persistent structure of unequal groups in society?
(a) Social cooperation(b) Social mobility
(c) Social stratification(d) Social conflict

Answer: (c) Social stratification refers to the persistent structure of unequal groups in society.

  1. What example does the textbook give to illustrate changes within social structures like families and schools?
(a) Rapid economic developments(b) Technological advancements
(c) Repetitions of certain behaviours and expectations over time(d) Changes in political ideologies

Answer: (c) Repetitions of certain behaviours and expectations over time illustrate changes within social structures like families and schools.

  1. According to the textbook, what is the functionalist perspective’s view on social norms and sanctions?
(a) They are tools used by dominant groups to control society.(b) They are irrelevant to the functioning of society.
(c) They help maintain the stability and functioning of the whole society.(d) They are considered detrimental to societal growth.

Answer: (c) They help maintain the stability and functioning of the whole society.

  1. The textbook describes two types of solidarity according to Emile Durkheim. What defines organic solidarity?
(a) Shared beliefs and values.(b) Social cohesion based on division of labour and interdependence.
(c) The absence of social stratification.(d) Uniformity in social roles and behaviours.

Answer: (b) Social cohesion based on division of labour and interdependence.

  1. How does the textbook explain Karl Marx’s view on cooperation in a capitalist society?
(a) It is voluntary and beneficial for all workers.(b) It emerges naturally without any social or economic pressure.
(c) It is enforced by the conditions of the capitalist system.(d) It is less productive than in non-capitalist societies.

Answer: (c) It is enforced by the conditions of the capitalist system.

  1. What is the sociological perspective on competition, as discussed in the textbook?
(a) It is a natural and unavoidable human trait.(b) It is a social construct that varies historically and culturally.
(c) It is primarily beneficial and promotes economic growth.(d) It should be eliminated for societal harmony.

Answer: (b) It is a social construct that varies historically and culturally.

  1. What example does the textbook provide to illustrate conflict and cooperation within families?
(a) Families always function without any internal conflicts.(b) Conflicts in families are overt and frequently lead to separation.
(c) Families appear cooperative, but may conceal deep conflicts.(d) Cooperation in families is always voluntary and free of conflict.

Answer: (c) Families appear cooperative, but may conceal deep conflicts.

  1. According to the textbook, what role does technology play in social processes such as cooperation?
(a) It eliminates the need for any form of human interaction.(b) It universally increases the need for cooperation.
(c) It can reduce the need for cooperation by changing the means of production.(d) It has no impact on social processes.

Answer: (c) It can reduce the need for cooperation by changing the means of production.

  1. How is enforced cooperation illustrated in the context of women’s rights to property in their natal family, as per the textbook?
(a) Women freely choose not to claim property to maintain family harmony.(b) Women are legally barred from claiming property.
(c) Women avoid claiming property due to potential social and familial conflicts.(d) Property rights are uniformly distributed without gender bias.

Answer: (c) Women avoid claiming property due to potential social and familial conflicts.

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Chapter 1: Social Structure, Stratification and Social Processes in Society – Very Short Answer Type Questions

Define ‘social structure’ using Giddens’ analogy.

Answer: Social structure points to regularities or patterns in human relationships and actions, similar to the structure of a building.

How does Durkheim describe the constraints of social structure?

Answer: According to Durkheim, social structure constraints individuals’ activities, like walls constraining movement.

What are the main differences between mechanical and organic solidarity?

Answer: According to Durkheim, mechanical solidarity based on sameness characterised pre-industrial societies, while organic solidarity based on interdependence from division of labour typified modern industrial societies.

Discuss Marx’s view on the role of human agency in social structure.

Answer: Marx argued humans make history within constraints of their historical situation.

What does ‘social stratification’ imply about social inequalities?

Answer: Social stratification implies structured inequalities between groups in access to resources.

How does social stratification affect access to resources?

Answer: Social stratification systematically links access to resources to group membership.

Describe two types of stratification mentioned in the textbook.

Answer: The textbook mentions two types of stratification – class divisions and stratification based on race, caste, region, community, tribe and gender.

Explain the concept of ‘life chances’ as a form of social advantage.

Answer: Life chances refer to material advantages that improve the quality of life, like wealth, income, health, job security and recreation.

How do social status and political influence act as forms of social stratification?

Answer: Social status provides prestige and high standing, while political influence allows domination over decision-making.

Define cooperation and how it differs in human societies versus the animal world.

Answer: Cooperation is working together to meet needs. For humans, unlike animals, it involves consciousness to actively alter society and the environment.

What is the sociological importance of the division of labour?

Answer: Division of labour implies interdependence, which is the basis of organic solidarity in complex societies.

How does Marx contrast cooperation in class-based societies?

Answer: Marx argued that in class-based societies where surplus is produced, cooperation necessarily involves potential conflict between exploited and exploiting classes.

Explain the concept of competition as discussed in sociological theory.

Answer: Competition is understood as a dominant norm that emerged with capitalism, driving efficiency and profit maximisation through market competition.

How is competition linked to the development of capitalism?

Answer: Competition became a dominant norm fueling efficiency and profit maximisation intrinsic to capitalism.

Define conflict and discuss how it varies in society.

Answer: Conflict implies a clash of interests. The bases of conflict vary – class, caste, tribe, gender, ethnicity, religion etc. The nature and scale of conflicts change at different stages of social development.

How can enforced cooperation appear in family settings?

Answer: Within families, conflicts may be concealed as enforced cooperation where individual interests conflict but are moulded into outward cooperation.

What role does social conflict play in shaping social processes?

Answer: Social conflict shapes social processes by highlighting unequal positions and competing interests within the social structure and stratification system.

Describe how technology influences the necessity for cooperation in agricultural settings.

Answer: More efficient agricultural technology reduces the necessity for cooperation among peasants and households.

What is the sociological perspective on competition among children in different cultural settings?

Answer: The sociological perspective questions the view that competition among children is natural across cultures.

Discuss the implications of property rights conflict within families as influenced by social structures.

Answer: Within families, conflicts over property rights emerge shaped by social structures like patriarchy, leading to convert resistance by subordinate groups.

Sample Questions Paper

Chapter 1: Social Structure, Stratification and Social Processes in Society – Sample Questions Paper

Time allowed: 2 hours Maximum Marks: 40

General Instructions:
(i) The question paper contains 14 questions.
(ii) All questions are compulsory.
(iii) Section A: Question numbers 1 and 2 are 1 mark source-based questions. Answers to these questions must not exceed 10-15 words.
(iv) Section B: Question numbers 3 to 9 are 2 marks questions. These are very short-answer type questions. Answer to these questions should not exceed 30 words.
(v) Section C: Question numbers 10 to 12 are 4 marks questions. These are short-answer type questions. Answer to these questions should not exceed 80 words.
(vi) Section D: Question numbers 13 and 14 are 6 marks questions. These are long-answer type questions. Answer to these questions should not exceed 200 words.

Section A

  1. Define the term ‘status’ in sociological context. (1 mark)
  2. What is meant by ‘norms’ in sociology? (1 mark)

Section B

  1. Differentiate between mechanical and organic solidarity. (2 marks)
    (a) Mechanical solidarity
    (b) Organic solidarity
  2. How is voluntary cooperation different from enforced cooperation? (2 marks)
  3. Distinguish between the views of Durkheim and Marx on cooperation. (2 marks)
    (a) Durkheim’s view
    (b) Marx’s view
  4. Define competition and differentiate it from cooperation. (2 marks)
  5. What is Laissez-faire liberalism? (2 marks)
  6. Explain the concept of division of labour. (2 marks)
  7. What is meant by dominant ideology? (2 marks)

Section C

  1. Explain the concept of alienation as given by Marx. (4 marks)
    Do you think that conflicts are always manifestations through overt clashes? Explain with suitable examples. (4 marks)
  2. Differentiate between the functionalist perspective and conflict perspective in terms of social processes. (4 marks)
    How do the norms of society ensure cooperation among individuals? Discuss with examples. (4 marks)
  3. Discuss the different tasks that demand cooperation with reference to agricultural or industrial operations. (4 marks)
    Is cooperation always voluntary or is it enforced? If enforced, is it sanctions or the strength of norms that ensure cooperation? Discuss with examples. (4 marks)

Section D

  1. Can you find illustrative examples of conflict drawn from Indian society? Discuss the causes that led to conflict in each instance. (6 marks)
    Imagine a society where there is no competition. Is it possible? If not, why not? (6 marks)

Write an essay based on examples to show how conflicts get resolved. (6 marks)
Talk to your parents and elders, grandparents and their contemporaries and discuss whether modern society is really more competitive or conflict-ridden than it used to be before. And if you think it is, how would you explain this sociologically? (6 marks)

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