Forests are essential components of an ecological system since they are the primary producers on which all other living things rely.

Biodiversity refers to the simultaneous existence of millions of living beings such as animals, plants, and humans. Humans rely on biodiversity for their basic survival. We cannot survive without plants and animals.



India boasts almost 8% of the world’s total number of species (estimated to be 1.6 million), making it one of the world’s richest countries in terms of biological variety.

The cheetah, mountain quail, pink-headed duck, forest spotted owlet, and flora such as madhuca insignis (a wild form of mahua) and hubbardia heptaneuron (a grass species) are all on the edge of extinction.

India’s forest cover is projected to be 637,293 sq km, or 19.39 percent of the country’s total land area.

Depletion of flora and fauna is caused by factors such as agricultural growth, enriching plantation, construction projects, and mining.

According to the IUCN, there are six types of existing plant and animal species: Endangered, Vulnerable, Rare, Endemic, and Extinct species.

Habitat destruction, poaching, over-exploitation, pollution, poisoning, and forest fires are just a few of the reasons that have contributed to India’s biodiversity reduction.

Due to a lack of adequate habitat and prey, the cheetah, the world’s fastest land animal, is practically extinct. In 1952, India declared it extinct. Overexploitation has put the Himalayan Yew, a valuable medicinal plant, in jeopardy. It can be found in Himachal Pradesh and Arunachal Pradesh in diverse areas.

According to the Forest Survey of India, nearly 26,200 sq km of forest land was turned into agricultural land across India between 1951 and 1980. Shifting or Jhum cultivation has deforested or degraded significant areas of forest in north eastern and central India.

Over 5,000 square kilometres of forest have been removed for river valley projects since 1951.

Habitat destruction, poaching, overexploitation, pollution, poisoning, and forest fires are just a few of the reasons that have contributed to India’s biodiversity reduction.Forest and wildlife destruction results in a loss of cultural diversity as well as a biological loss.



Conservation of ecological diversity and our life support system – water, air, and soil – is achieved through dialogue. In 1972, the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act was enacted, which included a number of habitat-protection restrictions.

The one-horned rhinoceros, Kashmir stag or hangul, three varieties of crocodiles, Asiatic lions, and other species are among those being protected by the central government.

Throughout India, animals such as the Indian elephant, black buck (Chinkara), big Indian bustard (godawan), and snow leopard have been accorded full or partial legislative protection from hunting and commerce.

Project Tiger, which began in 1973, was one of the most well-known wildlife conservation projects in the world.

The Wildlife Acts of 1980 and 1986 added hundreds of butterflies, moths, beetles, and one dragonfly to the list of protected species. Plants were added to the list for the first time in 1991.



Reserved forests, protected forests, and unclassified forests are the three types of forests.

Madhya Pradesh has the most permanent woods, accounting for 75% of the total forest area, whereas Jammu and Kashmir, Andhra Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal, and Maharashtra have high percentages of reserved forests. All of the North-eastern states, as well as parts of Gujarat, have a large percentage of unclassified forests managed by local people.



Farmers and groups for citizens such as  Tehri Beej Bachao Andolan and Navdanya have demonstrated that sufficient levels of crop diversification without application of chemicals can be a viable option.

Villagers in Rajasthan’s Sariska Tiger Reserve have battled mining under the Wildlife Protection Act. Villagers are safeguarding habitats and openly rejecting government interference in many locations.

Residents of five villages in Rajasthan’s Alwar district have designated 1,200 hectares of forest as the Bhairodev Dakav ‘Sonchuri,’ establishing their own set of rules and regulations that prohibit hunting and preserving animals from outside invasion.

Sacred Groves are various virgin woodlands that have been kept in their natural state as a result of nature worship (the forests of God and Goddesses).

During weddings, the Mundas and Santhals of Chhotanagpur worship mahua and kadamba trees, while tribals from Odisha and Bihar worship tamarind and mango trees. Peepal and banyan plants are regarded as sacred by many people.

Indian society is made up of several cultures, each with its own set of traditional conservation strategies for the environment and its creations.

The Himalayan Chipko Movement and the Joint Forest Management (JFM) initiative are both good instances of incorporating local populations in forest management and restoration.


NCERT Notes for Class 10 Social Science (Geography) Chapter 2 – Forest and Wildlife Resources

Humans, like all other living species, are entangled in a complex web of an ecological system. Chapter 2 of Class 10 Geography begins with an overview of India’s flora and fauna. The chapter next explores the critical function woods play in the ecological system and how forests and animals might be conserved in India. The chapter concludes with an explanation of the many measures taken by individuals to protect our forest and animal resources. All of these themes have been gathered in CBSE Notes Class 10 Geography Chapter 2 – Forest and Wildlife Resources. By going through these CBSE Class 10 Social Science Notes, you will have a better grasp of the chapter.

CBSE Class 10 Social Science notes will assist students in studying the topic thoroughly and clearly.

These CBSE Class 10 Social Science notes were written by subject experts who made the study material very basic, both in terms of language and format.

NCERT Solved Question Answer CBSE Class 10 Geography Chapter 02 – Forest and Wildlife Resources

1.1.  Which of these statements is not a valid reason for depletion of flora and fauna?

(a) Agricultural expansion.

(b) Large scale developmental projects.

(c) Grazing and fuelwood collection.

(d) Rapid industrialisation and urbanisation.

Answer: (d) Rapid industrialisation and urbanisation.

1.2. Which of the following conservation strategies do not directly involve community participation.

(a) Joint Forest Management

(b) Beej Bachao Andolan

(c) Chipko Movement

(d) Demarcation of Wildlife Sanctuaries

Answer: (d) Demarcation of Wildlife Sanctuaries

4.1. What is biodiversity? Why is biodiversity important for human lives?

Answer: Biodiversity is how many different kinds of life there are in an ecosystem or on a whole planet. There are millions of different living things on Earth. All of these living things, including people, need each other to survive.

4.2. How have human activities affected the depletion of flora and fauna? Explain.

Answer: Cutting down forests for farming, large-scale development projects, grazing, collecting wood for fuel, and building cities has led to the loss of plants and animals.

5.1. Describe how communities have conserved and protected forests and wildlife in India?

Answer: In India, there are still a lot of traditional communities that live in the forests and depend on forest products for their income. These towns and the government are working together to protect forests. Villagers in the Sariska Tiger Reserve in Rajasthan fought against mining. In the Alwar district of Rajasthan, five villages have made their own rules and regulations for the 1,200 hectares of forest land that they share. They have called it the “Sonchuri” of Bhairodev Dakav. You can’t hunt on these lands, and you can’t come in from the outside. In the Himalayas, people started the famous Chipko movement to stop cutting down trees. People in the area got involved in reforestation in a big way. Native species were grown in gardens and kept safe. Getting local people to help protect the environment and stop deforestation has led to many positive results.

5.2. Write a note on good practices towards conserving forest and wildlife.

Answer: In 1972, the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act went into effect. It made protecting certain habitats a law. A list of wildlife species that needed to be protected was made public, and it was against the law to hunt these animals. In many states, National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries were set up to help protect endangered species. Under the Wildlife Acts of 1980 and 1986, several insects have also been added to the list of protected species. On this list are butterflies, moths, beetles, dragonflies, and even some plants. India’s government started “Project Tiger” in 1973 to protect tigers. It is one of the most publicised wildlife campaigns in the world.

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