Introduction

Agriculture is India’s primary activity, employing nearly two-thirds of the population.

It provides the majority of the food we consume and other raw materials for a variety of industries.

TYPES OF FARMING

  1. There are mainly three different types of farming in India: commercial farming, basic subsistence farming and intensive subsistence farming.
  2. ‘Slash and burn agriculture’ is another term for ‘Primitive Subsistence Farming’. It is determined by the monsoon, the soil’s natural fertility, and the suitability of other environmental factors for the crops farmed. In the farming industry, the farmers do not utilize fertilisers or other modern inputs, and so the land productivity is low in this style of agriculture.
  3. High population pressure in certain locations is the reason behind intensive subsistence farming. For increased production, a large number of biochemical inputs and irrigation are used.
  4. To achieve increased output, commercial farming employs higher quantities of contemporary inputs such as pesticides, artificial fertilisers, high yielding variety (HYV) seeds, and insecticides. 
  5. Plantation farming deals with a type of commercial farming that carries the process of the cultivation of a single crop across a broad region.

CROPPING PATTERN

  1. Rabi, Kharif, and Zaid are the three main cropping seasons. Rabi crops are planted in the winter and harvested in the summer, starting from April until June. Kharif crops are planted as soon as the monsoon arrives and harvested in September and October. Between the Rabi and Kharif seasons is the Zaid season. This is a short season which comes during summer.
  2. Three paddy crops (Boro, Aus and Aman) are grown in states like Assam, West Bengal, and Odisha. Rabi crops include peas, gramme, mustard, wheat and barley.
  3. Kharif crops comprises moong, tur (arahar), maize, groundnut, paddy, cotton, urad, jute, soyabean, jowar and bajra. Under the radar of Zaid crops, it includes cucumber, fodder, sugarcanes, vegetables and watermelon.

MAJOR CROPS

Rice: After China, India is the world’s second-largest rice producer. It grows in the plains of Northern India, as well as coastal and deltaic areas. Rice is now being grown in Punjab, Haryana, western Uttar Pradesh, and in some areas of Rajasthan using tubewells and canal irrigation.

Wheat: This is the world’s second largest cereal crop. Haryana, Bihar, Punjab, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh are the primary wheat producing states.

Maize: It requires a temperature range of 21 to 27 degrees Celsius for growing. In old alluvial soil, it flourishes. Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh are the states that produce the most maize.

Millets: Millets such as ragi, jowar and bajra are widely grown in India. Although these are referred to as coarse grains, they are rich in nutrients.

Pulses: India is both the world’s greatest producer and consumer of pulses. Masur, gramme, urad, Tur (arhar),moong, and peas are the most common pulses farmed in India. Karnataka,Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra and Rajasthan are the major pulse-producing states in India.

FOOD CROPS OTHER THAN GRAINS

Oilseeds: India is the world’s greatest producer of oilseeds. Mustard, sesame, castor seeds, soyabean, cotton seeds, sunflower, linseed, coconut and groundnut are the most common oilseeds grown in India. 

Groundnut falls in the category of kharif crop that accounts for over half of the country’s key oilseeds. Andhra Pradesh is the leading groundnut producer, with Gujarat,Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra Karnataka following closely after.

Sugarcane: It is both a tropical and sub-tropical crop. It grows very well in hot, humid environments. After Brazil, India is the world’s second-largest sugarcane grower. Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Haryana, Bihar Karnataka and Punjab are the major sugarcane producing states.

Tea: It is a beverage crop that was first brought to India by the British. It’s a labor-intensive business. In 2008, India was once renowned the world’s third-largest tea producer, behind Turkey and China.

Coffee: India contributed 2% to 3% of global coffee production. India produces the Arabica variant of coffee, which is in high demand around the world. It was first cultivated on the Baba Sudan Hills.

HORTICULTURE CROPS

  1. In 2008, India was the world’s second-largest producer of vegetables and fruits, after only China. 
  2. West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and Maharashtra are the states where mangoes are grown.
  3. Cherrapunji (Meghalaya) and Nagpur oranges are well-known.
  4. In Mizoram, Tamil Nadu,Maharashtra, and Kerala, bananas are farmed.
  5. Guavas and lichis are grown in Bihar and Uttar Pradesh.
  6. Meghalaya grows pineapples, Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh grow grapes, while Himachal Pradesh and Jammu & Kashmir grow walnuts, apples, apricots and pears.

NON-FOOD CROPS

Rubber: It’s a vital component in the manufacturing process. It is primarily farmed in Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, the Meghalaya Garo hills and Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

Fibre crops: India’s four main fibre crops are natural silk, hemp, jute and cotton. 

The first three are created from soil-grown crops, while the fourth is derived from silkworm cocoons fed on green leaves, particularly mulberry leaves.

Cotton: The cotton plant is thought to have originated in India. Cotton thrives in the drier sections of the Deccan plateau’s black cotton soil.

Jute: The golden fibre is what it’s called. The primary jute producing states are Assam, Meghalaya, Odisha, Bihar and West Bengal. It is losing market share to packing materials and synthetic fibres mainly nylon, due to its expensive cost.

THE IMPLEMENTATION OF TECHNOLOGY AND INSTITUTIONAL REFORMS

Prioritization was given to collectivisation, holdings consolidation, cooperation, and the eradication of Zamindari, among other things. Our First Five Year Plan’s principal aim was ‘land reform.’ Agriculture’s contribution to employment, national economy, and output.

Bhoodan Gramdan, commonly known as the Bloodless Revolution, was started by Vinobha Bhave.

To improve the state of Indian agriculture, the White Revolution (Operation Flood) and the Green Revolution were implemented. A large territorial development initiative was started in the 1980s and 1990s. Both technological and institutional improvements were covered.

Farmers have benefited from initiatives such as the Personal Accident Insurance Scheme (PAIS) and the Kisan Credit Card (KCC).

THE CONTRIBUTION OF AGRICULTURE TO THE NATIONAL ECONOMY, EMPLOYMENT AND OUTPUT

Fertiliser subsidies have been reduced, resulting in a rise in production costs. Farmers are not investing much in agriculture, resulting in a decrease in agricultural employment.

For improving Indian agriculture, priority was given to the establishment of the agricultural universities, animal breeding centres, veterinary services, horticulture development, meteorology, Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) and weather forecasting research and development, and so on.

INFORMATION ON FOOD SECURITY

The national food security system is divided into two parts: public distribution (PDS) and buffer stock. The Food Corporation of India (FCI) buys food grains from farmers at the government-set minimum support price (MSP), while the Public Distribution System (PDS) handles distribution. Consumers are separated into two groups: those living below the poverty line (BPL) and those living above the poverty line (APL).

THE IMPACT OF GLOBALISATION ON AGRICULTURE

Indian farmers have faced additional challenges as a result of globalisation, particularly since 1990. Genetic engineering is widely acknowledged as a valuable tool for developing novel hybrid seed kinds. Population of India in rural areas is estimated to be around 600 million people, who rely on approximately 250 million hectares of agricultural land, or less than half a hectare per person. Farmers in India should shift their planting patterns away from cereals and toward high-value crops.

NCERT Solved Question Answer CBSE Class 10 Geography Chapter 04 – Agriculture

1.1. Which one of the following describes a system of agriculture where a single crop is grown on a large area ?

(a) Shifting Agriculture

(b) Plantation Agriculture

(c) Horticulture

(d) Intensive Agriculture

1.2. Which one of the following is a rabi crop? 

(a) Rice

(b) Wheat

(c) Millets

(d) Cotton

1.3. Which one of the following is a leguminous crop?

(a) Pulses

(b) Millet

(c) Jowar

(d) Sesamum

2.1.Name one important beverage crop and specify the geographical conditions required for its growth.

Answer: Along with coffee, tea is another important beverage crop that was brought to India. The tea plant grows well in tropical and semitropical climates. It needs soil that is deep, rich in humus and organic matter, and well-drained. Tea bushes need a warm, moist, and frost-free environment all year long. Rain falls often and evenly throughout the year, so the leaves keep growing.

2.2. Name one staple crop of India and the regions where it is produced.

Answer: Cotton is one of the main crops in India. Major cotton-producing states are – Maharashtra, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh.

2.3. Enlist the various institutional reform programmes introduced by the government in the interest of farmers.

Answer: 

  • Eliminating zamindari.
  • Combining small farms into larger ones.
  • Insurance against drought, flood, cyclone, fire, and disease.
  • Creating Grameen banks, cooperative societies, the Kissan Credit Card and Personal Accident Insurance Scheme, and banks so that farmers can get loans at lower interest rates.
  • Announcement about Minimum support prices to make sure farmers wouldn’t lose money if the price fell because of bumper crops.
  • Subsidy for agricultural inputs and resources, like electricity and fertilisers.

2.4. The land under cultivation has got reduced day by day. Can you imagine its consequences?

Answer:

  • India will no longer be able to meet its own needs for food grains.
  • India will have more landless labourers than unskilled unemployed workers.
  • More farmers will switch over to growing high-value crops.
  1. Answer the following questions in about 120 words.

3.1.  Suggest the initiative taken by the government to ensure the increase in agricultural production.

Answer: Organic farming is popular now because it is done without man-made chemicals like fertilisers and pesticides. So, it does not hurt the environment in any way. Indian farmers should switch from growing cereals to high-value crops. This will raise incomes and protect the environment at the same time. Because they are fruits, medicinal herbs, flowers, or vegetables, biodiesel crops like jatropha and jojoba need much less watering than rice or sugarcane. India’s varied climate can be used to grow a wide range of high-value crops.

3.3. Describe the geographical conditions required for the growth of rice.

Answer: This Kharif crop needs temperatures above 25°C, high humidity, and over 100 cm of rain a year. It grows with the help of irrigation in places that don’t get as much rain. India has plains in the north and northeast, along the coast, and in the deltaic regions. Rice can now be grown in places like Punjab, Haryana, western Uttar Pradesh, and parts of Rajasthan that get less rain because of a dense network of irrigation canals and tubewells.

4. Solve the puzzle by following your search horizontally and vertically to find the hidden answers :

  1. The two staple food crops of India.
  2. This is the summer cropping season of India.
  3. Pulses like arhar, moong, gram, urad contain………………..
  4. It is a coarse grain.
  5. The two important beverages in India are …………………..
  6. One of the four major fibres grown on black soils.

Answer:

  1. Rice and wheat
  2. Kharif
  3. Protein
  4. Jowar
  5. Tea and coffee
  6. Cotton.
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