Chapter 4 of Class 9 English textbook – Beehive – has a prose piece titled A Truly Beautiful Mind, which is a tale about Albert Einstein, a famous scientist whose interest in Mathematics and Physics is highlighted. The paragraph discusses how he toiled to create the Theory of Relativity, his loves and dislikes, and the attribute of human sentiments that he encountered while working for global peace and democracy throughout his lifetime. To learn more in-depth, read the prose summary in CBSE English Notes Class 9 style. As they prepare for further courses, 9th-grade students may read the prose summary of the CBSE Class 9 English Prose Notes – A Truly Beautiful Mind.
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CBSE Class 9 English notes will assist students in studying the topic thoroughly and clearly.
These CBSE Class 9 English notes were written by subject experts who made the study material very basic, both in terms of language and format.
Early Life Of Einstein
Albert Einstein was born in Ulm, Germany on 14 March 1879 to German parents.
His mother believed he was abnormal due to his head being too large in comparison to other children.
He began speaking, albeit with difficulty, at the age of two and a half.
He enjoyed playing with mechanical toys and preferred to play alone, earning him the nickname ‘Brother Boring’ from other children.
Even his school headmaster expressed dissatisfaction with him, telling his father that Albert would ‘never succeed in any career he chose.
At the age of six, his mother compelled him to learn to play the violin.
Later in life, he developed into a gifted amateur (non-professional) violinist.
Education And Married Life Of Einstein
When Einstein’s parents relocated to Milan, they allowed him to continue his education in Munich, but he dropped out of high school at the age of 15 due to his discomfort with the strictness.
He was gifted in mathematics and a physicist.
As a result, he continued his studies at Zurich’s university.
There he met Mileva Maric, a Serbian girl who was also an intellectual.
They fell in love and eventually married after Albert obtained employment following the completion of his university studies.
However, despite having two sons, their family life was unhappy. Finally, in 1919, they divorced.
Einstein’s Special Theory Of Relativity
Einstein eventually obtained employment as a technical expert at the parent company’s headquarters in Bern, where he evaluated (judged) other people’s inventions.
Parallel to this, he continued secretly developing his own ideas.
In 1905, he published his Special Theory of Relativity, which asserts that time and distance are relative (independent).
He deduced (obtained) the world’s most famous formula for the mass-energy relationship: E = mc2.
Einstein’s ‘General Theory of Relativity’ was published in 1915.
The solar eclipse of the sun validated his theory.
He achieved fame as a result of his work being dubbed a ‘scientific revolution.’
In 1921, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for this and other accomplishments.
Einstein Works For Peace And Democracy
When the Nazis took power in Germany, Einstein emigrated (moved) to the United States of America.When the world’s scientists learned that Germany had developed nuclear fission, they became fearful of the Nazis developing and using an atomic bomb.
He was convinced by a colleague to write to Franklin D Roosevelt,
President of the United States of America, warning him that this development could result in widespread devastation.
This prompted the Americans to develop their own nuclear weapon and use it against Japan near the end of World War II.
Einstein was astounded by the extent of devastation caused by these bombs and wrote an open letter to the United Nations urging it to halt the arms buildup through the establishment of a ‘world government.’
Throughout the next decade, until his death in 1955, Einstein continued to campaign (push or press) for an end to the arms buildup and used his popularity to promote peace and democracy.
He was hailed and lauded as a visionary and ‘world citizen’ in addition to his scientific brilliance.
SOLVED QUESTIONS & ANSWERS NCERT SOLVED QUESTIONS
1. Who had these opinions about Einstein?
(i) He was boring.
(ii) He was stupid and would never succeed in life.
(iii) He was a freak.
(i) Einstein’s playmates found him boring.
(ii) A headmaster thought that he was stupid and would never succeed in life.
(iii) Einstein’s mother thought that he was a freak because, to her, his head seemed much too large.
2. Explain what the reasons for the following are
(i) Einstein leaving the school in Munich for good.
(ii) Einstein wanting to study in Switzerland rather than in Munich.
(iii) Einstein seeing in Mileva an ally.
(iv) What do these tell you about Einstein?
Answer : (i) Einstein hated the regimented environment of his school in Munich. He always argued with his teachers. His mind was not designed for the typical school environment’s strict and disciplined environment. That is why he permanently left school in Munich to pursue his independence.
(ii) Switzerland, on the other hand, was more liberal than Munich. Einstein must have wished for a less suffocating environment in Switzerland than he encountered in Munich. As a result, he desired to study in Switzerland.
(iii) Mileva lived directly across the street from Einstein’s parents. In contrast to them, she used to value the arts and finer things in life. Her mindset was identical to Einstein’s. Thus, Einstein recognised an ally in Mileva.
(iv)These excerpts from Einstein’s life provide insight into the extraordinary thinking ability he possessed since his youth, because only a person with above-average intelligence can think beyond conventional systems of behaviour and action. Einstein always liked to take his own decisions which is evident from his insistence on leaving Munich for a better future.
3. What did Einstein call his desk drawer at the patent office? Why?
Answer: Einstein dubbed his patent office desk drawer the “bureau of theoretical physics” during his lifetime. Although it is not stated in the storey, it is reasonable to assume that the majority of patent applications involved minor modifications to scientific theories and practises, as truly novel and innovative ideas are rare. Additionally, because Einstein was a genius, he could see the flaws in the patent applications, as the vast majority of them must have been purely theoretical, with no practical application. That is why Einstein’s desk was dubbed ‘the bureau of theoretical physics.’
4. Why did Einstein write a letter to Franklin Roosevelt?
or Why did Einstein write a letter to the American President Roosevelt?
Answer: According to the storey, Einstein either desired that the USA prevent Nazis from developing the nuclear bomb or desired that the USA develop a nuclear bomb for the purpose of utilising its destructive potential. Probably, he desired that the USA refrain from allowing the Nazis to develop the atomic bomb. However, the letter resulted in the USA developing the atomic bomb and employing it against Japan.
5. How did Einstein react to the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki?
Answer: Einstein was profoundly affected by the Hiroshima and Nagasaki disasters. He wrote the United Nations a letter pleading with them to establish a global government. He lobbied for an end to the arms buildup and used his celebrity to promote global peace and democracy.
6. Why does the world remember Einstein as a ‘world citizen’?
Answer: Einstein’s discovery had a global impact, as it sparked new discoveries about the universe. His theories of relativity fundamentally altered how scientists previously viewed the universe. Apart from that, he advocated for global peace and nuclear disarmament. Einstein is referred to as a ‘world citizen’ for his scientific and geopolitical contributions.
7. Here are some facts from Einstein’s life. Arrange them in chronological order.
[a] Einstein publishes his Special Theory of Relativity.
[b] He is awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics.
[c] Einstein writes a letter to US President, Franklin D Roosevelt and warns against Germany’s building of an atomic bomb.
[d] Einstein attends a high school in Munich.
[e] Einstein’s family moves to Milan.
[f] Einstein is born in the German city of Ulm.
[g] Einstein joins a university in Zurich, where he meets Mileva.
[h] Einstein dies.
[i] He provides a new interpretation of gravity.
[U] Tired of the school’s regimentation, Einstein withdraws from school.
[k] He works in a patent office as a technical expert.
[I] When Hitler comes to power, Einstein leaves Germany for the United States.
Answer : [f] , [d] , [e] , [j] , [g] , [k] , [a] , [i] , [b] , [l] , [c] , [h]