The creation of commodities and services, as well as their movement to their destinations, are critical to a country’s development. The economy relies heavily on transportation.

Besides transportation, methods of communication such as the telephone or the internet provide for a smooth workflow. With the help of efficient and fast-moving transportation and a well-developed communication infrastructure, the world has now been transformed into a vast village.

Land, ocean, and air transportation are the three types of transportation. Transportation, communication, and trade are all interdependent.


Raw materials approach the business or industry via transit, while finished products reach the consumers via mass transit. Both the manufacturing and distribution of commodities have benefited from transportation.


  • India boasts one of its world’s largest road networks. The expense of building roads is substantially lower.
  • Because it offers door-to-door transportation, the price of loading / unloading is significantly reduced. It serves as a connection to other kinds of transportation.
  • Roads in India are divided into six categories based on their capacity:

(I) Golden Quadrilateral Super Highways,

(ii) National Highways

(iii) State Highways

(iv) District Roads

(v) Other Roads

(vi) Border Roads.

  • Motorable and unmetalled roads are two types of roads that can be classed based on the type of material used in their construction.


It refers to the length of a roadway per 100 square kilometres of land. The country’s road allocation is not equal.


  • India’s railways are the country’s biggest public undertaking.
  • These are India’s primary route of long-distance transportation for products and passengers, as well as a means of conducting a variety of activities such as commerce, tourism, and devotion.
  • Physiographic, economical, and administrative reasons have all influenced the distribution pattern of a country’s railway network.
  • The railways now play a larger role in our country’s economy than other modes of transportation combined. However, train transportation has its own set of issues. Many travellers, for example, travel without tickets.


The pipeline transport system is a relatively new addition to India’s transportation landscape. Pipelines have indeed been utilised to connect oil-producing regions with refineries in far-flung locales. Pipelines have been used to transport not only crude oil but also gas.

The initial cost of constructing pipelines is considerable, but the ongoing costs are low.


Rivers are the most cost-effective mode of transportation. They’re ideal for transporting large, bulky items. It was a fuel-efficient and environmentally beneficial means of transportation.

The length of India’s interior navigation canals is 14,500 kilometres. About 5200 km of waterways are passable by mechanised boats, while 4000 km are not.


India has a 7,516.6-kilometer-long coastline with 12 large ports and 181 middle and minor ports. 95 percent of India’s international trade passes through these ports.

Kandla, Mumbai, Visakhapatnam, Paradip, Calcutta, and others are among the important ports. Mumbai is still the world’s largest port, having a large, natural, and well-protected harbour.


  • The quickest form of transportation is by plane. It can easily navigate tough terrains and large miles of ocean. In 1953, the government took control of air transportation.
  • Domestic and international flights are available.
  • The Indian government declared in 2007 that Indians would be absorbed into Air India. Following this procedure, Air India would have a fleet of more than 130 aircraft.


  1. Communication is the verbal or written interchange of ideas, messages, and emotions from one location to another.
  2. The Indian post system is responsible for parcels, messages, cards, postcards, packets, certified newspapers, and periodicals that are transported by road, aircraft, or water.
  3. For rapid delivery of mail in major towns, the Indian postal network has created six mail routes.
  4. India boasts one of Asia’s most extensive telephone networks.
  5. Entertainment is provided via mass communication, as is public understanding of various national programmes and policies. Radio, tv, newspapers, journals, novels, and films are all part of it.
  6. Every year, India produces a vast number of newspapers and publications. Hindi newspapers are the most widely circulated in the country, followed by English and Urdu.
  7. In terms of feature films, India is just the leading producer.
  8. Short films, video features, and short films are all produced by the company. Both Indian and international films are certified by the Central Board.


Trade is the exchange of goods between individuals, states, and countries. India has trade links with all of the main trading blocs as well as all of the world’s geographical areas.

A market is a location where such transactions take place. The components of trade are export and import. The balance of trade is the ratio between exporters and importers.


  1. Over last 3 decades, tourism in India has exploded. The tourist business employs more than 15 million people.
  2. Every year, nearly 5 million international tourists visit India.

Jaipur, Goa, Jammu & Kashmir, and South India’s temple towns are popular tourist destinations for international visitors.


NCERT Notes for Class 10 Social Science (Geography) Chapter 7 – Lifelines of National Economy

The rate at which a nation develops is determined by the number of products and services produced and their mobility over space. Today, the globe has been transformed into a vast village thanks to the development of efficient and rapid transportation. India is now well-connected to the rest of the globe. You will discover how contemporary modes of transport and communication act as lifelines for our country and its modern economy in CBSE Notes Class 10 Geography Chapter 7 – Lifelines of National Economy.

CBSE Class 10 Social Science notes will assist students in studying the topic thoroughly and clearly.

These CBSE Class 10 Social Science notes were written by subject experts who made the study material very basic, both in terms of language and format.

NCERT Solved Question Answer CBSE Class 10 Geography Chapter 07 – Life Lines of National Economy

Question 1.

  • Which are the extreme locations connected by the East-West Corridor?
  • Which mode of transportation reduces trans-shipment losses and delays?
  • State two states which are connected with the HVJ pipeline.
  • Which port is the deepest land-locked and well-protected port along the east coast?
  • Which is the most important mode of transportation in India?
  • Which term is used to describe trade between two or more countries?


  1. Silchar and Porbandar.
  2. Pipeline.
  3. Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, and Uttar Pradesh.
  4. Vishakhapatnam.
  5. Railways.
  6. International trade.

Question 2(1).

(1) State merits of roadways.


(1) Merits of roadways: India has one of the largest road networks in the world. It is about 2.3 million km at present. In India roads were built earlier than the railways which were started in 1853.

The merits of roadways are as mentioned below :

  1. The construction cost of roads is much lower than that of railway lines,
  2. Roads can traverse dissected and undulating topography and
  3. Roads can negotiate higher gradients of slopes. and as such can traverse mountains such as the Himalayas.

Question 2(2).

Where and why is rail transport the most convenient means of transportation?

Answer: Railways make it possible to do things like do business, see sights, and go on pilgrimages, as well as transport goods over longer distances. In addition to being an important way to get around, the Indian Railways have been a great unifying force for more than 150 years. Railways in India connect the country’s economy and speed up the growth of both industry and agriculture.

Question 2(3).

What is the significance of the border roads?

Answer: The Government of India’s Roads Organization builds and takes care of roads along the country’s borders. This organisation was set up in 1960 to improve the strategic roads in the northern and northeastern border areas. These roads have made areas with hard terrain easier to get to and have helped these areas grow economically.

Question 2(4).

What is meant by trade? What is the difference between international and local trade?

Answer: A trade is when people, states, or countries trade goods with each other. This kind of trading takes place on the market. International trade is when two countries trade with each other. It could happen on the sea, in the air, or on land. Local trade happens in cities, towns, and villages, while trade between states happens between two or more states.

(1) Why are the means of transportation and communication called the lifelines of a nation and its economy?

Answer: The means of transportation and communication are called the lifelines of a nation and its economy due to reasons as mentioned below :

  1. The transportation system helps move goods and services from places where they are made or sold to places where they are needed.
  2. Transport is an important link between the people who make things and the people who buy them.
  3. They provide raw materials for agriculture and industry, which helps them grow.
  4. Getting finished goods to customers.
  5. People from different parts of the country and the world can get to know each other better when there is a good transportation system. This makes them more dependent on each other.
  6. With the growth of science and technology, trade and transportation have become much bigger and more important. Different countries that are far away from each other are now trading with each other.
  7. India is linked to the rest of the world by a system of communication that is very advanced. Its thriving international trade has given its economy new life and raised the living standards of its people, making their lives better.
  8. Railways are a type of transportation that helps us do things like do business, see sights, go on pilgrimages, and move goods over longer distances.
  9. Pipelines are used to move crude oil and natural gas to refineries and factories.
  10. Waterways are the cheapest way to get around.
  11. Air travel is the fastest and most comfortable way to get from one place to another.
  12. Transport and communication networks that are dense and work well are important for fast growth and trade on a national and global scale. So, modern ways to get around and talk to each other are vital to our country and its modern economy.

(2) Write a note on the changing nature of international trade in the last fifteen years.

Answer: India trades with all of the world’s major trading blocs and all parts of the world. Agriculture and related products (2.53 percent), ores and minerals (9.12 percent), gems and jewellery (26.75 percent), chemicals and related products (24.45 percent), engineering goods (35.63 percent), and petroleum products have all seen their share of exports rise over the last few years (86.12 percent) India imports oil and oil products (41.87 %), pearls and precious stones (29.26 %), inorganic chemicals (29.39 %), coal, coke, and briquettes (94.17 %), and machinery (0.1 %). (12.56 percent).

As a whole, bulk imports went up, making up 39.09 percent of all imports. This group contains 67.01 percent fertilisers, 25.23 percent cereals, 7.94 percent edible oils, and newsprint (5.51 percent). In the past fifteen years, international trade has changed a lot. The trade of goods and services has been replaced by the trade of information and knowledge. India is now one of the biggest software companies in the world. It gets a lot of money from selling information technology abroad.

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