Here you will learn the basics of Chapter 1 The Story of Village Palampur in a simple language it is for CBSE English medium students who are studying under Central Board of Secondary Education following NCERT textbook and curriculum for class 9 here you will find all the necessary and important definitions notes suggestion solved question paper sample papers with video lectures made by expert teachers
Overview of Palampur Village
Farming is the primary source of income in a fictitious village called Palampur. Other productive activities, such as dairy farming, manufacturing, transportation, and retail, are carried out on a small scale.
These manufacturing operations need a variety of resources, including natural resources, manufactured goods, human labour, and money.
Palampur has a well-developed road network. It links Palampur to Raiganj, a larger village, and Shahpur, the next small town. Approximately 80 higher caste families control the majority of land in Palampur and have huge, well-constructed permanent residences.
SCs (Dalits) make up about one-third of the town’s population and are landless labourers. They reside in a secluded section of the village in tiny huts, some of which are made of mud and straw.
Numerous residences in Palampur are linked for electricity. All tubewells, small-scale industry, and other commercial units in Palampur are powered by electricity. It is served by two primary schools and one secondary school.
Additionally, it is home to a government primary health care facility and a private dispensary.
As seen above, Palampur has a well-established network of roads, transportation, power, irrigation, schools, and health services. Similarly, all Indian communities have farming as their primary source of income in addition to other non-farm occupations.
Organisation Of Production
Production is an activity that results in the provision of services and goods. This needs four components, generally referred to as factors of production.
- Labour: Labor is required to carry out manufacturing tasks. They might be manual labourers or highly skilled or educated individuals.
- Land: Land and other natural resources such as water, minerals, and forests are all considered natural resources.
- Physical capital is divided into two components.
- Working capital: Raw materials and cash on hand are used to acquire raw materials and services necessary for manufacturing and to sell completed items.
- Fixed capital: Capital assets or investments required to begin production of types of goods and services. Structures, machinery, and tools ranging from ploughs to generators, turbines, and computers are all included.
Human capital: Knowledge and entrepreneurship form human capital. It is essential to combine all of the preceding inputs to generate the output.
Farming In Palampur
Land Is Fixed
75% of the working population of Palampur is reliant on agriculture, either as farmers or as agricultural labourers. Their well-being is directly related to farming output.
Increased agricultural productivity may be achieved by expanding the area under cultivation. However, no more land has been farmed in Palampur since 1960, save for wasteland.
Palampur’s situation may be likened to that of India. India’s cultivated land has recently expanded from 120 million hectares in 1950 to 140 million hectares in 2010-11 to meet the country’s growing population needs. There is no longer any possibility of cultivating more land to improve farm production.
Ways To Grow More From The Same Land
Farmers may increase their production from the same land in a variety of ways.
- Farmers use multiple cropping to increase production from the same piece of land; they cultivate more than one crop on the same piece of land throughout the year.
- Farmers produce jowar and bajra during the rainy season (Kharif), which are utilised as cattle food. Kharif cultivation is followed by potato cultivation from October to December.
- Farmers plant wheat during the winter season (Rabi).
- Farmers retain enough wheat for personal use and sell the remainder at the Raiganj market. A portion of the property is also used to grow sugarcane, which is harvested once a year. Sugarcane is sold to vendors in Shahpur in its raw state or as jaggery.
Reason Behind Successful Multiple Cropping
Palampur village has a well-developed irrigation system. The availability of energy is the primary cause for the development of an irrigation system.
Tubewells have replaced Persian wheels that watered tiny farms through wells. As a result, by the mid-1970s, the village’s whole farmed area of 200 hectares had been placed under irrigation.
Palampur’s irrigation pattern is comparable to that of other regions in India. None of India’s villages has the degree of irrigation that Palampur has. Apart from riverine plains, coastal locations benefit from extensive irrigation.
In comparison, plateau areas like the Deccan Plateau get less irrigation. Irrigation accounts for a little less than 40% of the total agricultural land in the nation. Agriculture is heavily reliant on rainfall in the remaining regions.
Traditional And Modern Farming Methods
Additionally, production may be increased by the use of modern farming techniques to increase output. Farmers employed traditional seeds until the mid-I960s, which required less irrigation but produced relatively low yields. Additionally, they fertilised with easily available cow dung and other natural manure.
Use Of HYV Seeds
- In the late 1960s, the Green Revolution introduced Indian farmers to High Yielding Varieties (HYVs) of seeds, which improved their yield.
- Increased yields were only achievable with the use of HYV seeds, irrigation (plenty of water), chemical fertilisers, and pesticides, among other things.
- Farmers in Punjab, Haryana, and Western Uttar Pradesh were the first in India to experiment with farming practices.
- Additionally, several farmers purchased farm gear such as tractors and threshers. This facilitated ploughing and harvesting. In Palampur, the yield of wheat increased to 3200 kg per hectare when HYV seeds were used, compared to 1300 kg per hectare when traditional seeds were used. Farmers now had a bigger excess of wheat to sell in marketplaces.
All agriculturalists in Palampur lacked sufficient land for farming. 150 households in Palampur are landless, the most of them are dalits. 240 households cultivate tiny areas of land smaller than two hectares, which do not generate a suitable income for the farmer family.
As a result, they need to seek additional labour for a portion of the year. The remaining 60 families of medium and big farmers cultivate land in excess of 2 hectares. Several of them have land areas of at least ten hectares.
Sustenance Of Land
Significant pressure has been placed on land and other natural resources in the pursuit of increased output. Soil fertility has decreased as a result of land overuse and the use of chemical fertilisers.
Chemical fertilisers harm the soil’s bacteria and microorganisms, reducing the soil’s natural fertility. Due to the vast amounts of water required by current agricultural practises, the water table under the ground has dwindled, further impairing the soil’s fertility.
Effects Of Using Chemical Fertilisers
Chemical fertilisers deliver nutrients to plants that dissolve in water and are instantly available. However, these minerals may not be kept in the soil for an extended period of time.
They may contaminate groundwater, rivers, and lakes when they escape from the soil. The continued use of chemical fertilisers has resulted in a decline in soil health.
Farmers in Punjab are now being compelled to use an increasing amount of fertiliser and other inputs in order to maintain the same level of productivity, i.e., the cost of agriculture is rising rapidly.
Capital Needed In Farming
Due to the high capital requirements of current agricultural practises, the farmer needs additional funds. Small farmers must borrow money to finance their operations.
They receive credit from major farmers, local moneylenders, and businessmen who offer various agricultural materials. The interest rate on such loans is quite high. They are put through extreme hardship in order to return the loan. Large and medium-sized farmers have their own savings. As a result, they are able to get the necessary financing.
- Farm labourers come from either landless households or families with little parcels of land to cultivate. In contrast to farmers, farm labourers have no claim to the crops grown on the property.
- These labourers may be compensated in cash or in tangible goods such as crops; they may also get meals.
- Additionally, there are significant differences in work duration. Laborers may not be employed on a year-round basis. They might be employed on a daily basis or for specific tasks such as planting and harvesting.
- Due to intense rivalry for employment among Palampur’s farm labourers, they accept to work for lesser rates.
- The Indian government established a minimum wage of t 300 per day in March 2017, yet farmers in Palampur earn barely t 160 per day. As a result, agricultural labourers are the poorest villages.
- Thus, the labour force migrates to neighbouring villages, towns, and cities in search of better prospects. Some labourers have also entered the village’s non-farm economy, and some rely on moneylenders.
Sale Of Surplus Farm Products
The large and medium farmers of Palampur save a portion of the grain produced for their own use and sell the remainder in the market. Traders at the market purchase these grains with the intention of reselling them to city and town merchants.
These farmers gain a substantial sum of money from this sale, which they deposit in their bank account. They then utilise this money to purchase inputs for the following farming season, capital equipment, and even modest farmer loans.
Some farmers may utilise this money to establish businesses in non-agricultural sectors. Thus, their working capital and fixed capital are increased as a result of this extra money.
Different Non-Farm Activities In Palampur
At the moment, only roughly 25% of Palampur’s working population is employed in non-agricultural jobs. It is nearly identical to the proportion of non-farm workers in rural parts of the nation.
Though the village has a range of non-agricultural enterprises (dairy farming, jaggery manufacturing, transportation, shopkeeping, and computer instruction), each sector employs a very small number of people.
Dairy is the second largest industry after agriculture.After farming, dairy is the most common activity in Palampur. People feed their buffaloes on various kinds of grass, jowar and bajra grown in the rainy season. The milk produced is sold in the nearby large village, Raiganj.
It has collection-cum-chilling centres run by two traders from Shahpur town to transport the milk to far away towns and cities. In Palampur less than fifty people are engaged in the manufacturing sector. It is done on a small-scale.
This manufacturing is generally done at home or in the countryside, with the assistance of family labour. Laborers are employed frequently.
Numerous cars travel the route connecting Palampur and Raiganj. Numerous individuals work in the transportation industry, including rickshawallahs, tongawallahs, jeep, tractor, and truck drivers, as well as individuals who operate traditional bogey and bullock carts.
The number of persons employed in transportation has significantly increased during the previous several years.
NCERT questions & answers from The Story of Village Palampur
Every village in India is surveyed once in ten years during the Census and some of details are presented in the following format. Fill up the following based on information on Palampur.
(b) Total area of the village:
(c) Land use (in hectares):
|Cultivated land||Land not available for cultivation (Area covering dwellings, roads, ponds, grazing ground)|
(d) Facilities :
- Location : 3 kilometres from Raiganj (a large village) and 3 km from Shahpur, the nearest small town.
- Total area of the village : 226 hectares.
- Land use ( in hectares) :
|Cultivated land||Land that is not cultivable (Area covering dwellings, roads, ponds, grazing ground)|
|200 hectares||NIL||26 hectares|
- Facilities :
|Education||One high school and two primary schools|
|Medical||One private dispensary and one public primary health care facility.|
|Market||Shops selling eatables and some general stores.|
|Electric supply||The majority of homes are electrified.|
|Communication||Television, telephone and posts.|
Modern farming methods require more inputs which are manufactured in industry. Do you agree?
Answer: Yes, modern agricultural systems require more inputs than traditional agricultural methods.
All of the following are required: chemical fertilisers, insecticides, pump sets, farm equipment, energy, high-yielding seed varieties, and water.
The vast majority of these items are manufactured in factories. Similarly, tanks and canals supply water.
How did the spread of electricity help farmers of Palampur?
Answer: Palampur was one of India’s first cities to receive electricity. It wreaked havoc on the irrigation system.
The tube wells in Palampur’s fields are all powered by electricity, which is also used to power a variety of small businesses.
According to some, electric-powered tube wells can irrigate significantly more than conventional tube wells.
Is it important to increase the area under irrigation? Why?
Answer: Yes, increasing irrigation area is critical because if a country wishes to increase production, it must increase irrigation area
Construct a table on the distribution of land among the 450 families of Palampur.
Answer: The following is the land distribution among Palampur’s 450 families:
|Land (in hectares)||No. of families|
|Less than 2||240|
|More than 2||60|
Why are the wages for farm labourers in Palampur less than minimum wages?
Answer: Because of these reasons, farm labourers in Palampur earn less than the minimum wage:
- Farmers are competing for work in a fierce manner.
- Farmers must be content with their earnings, as employment opportunities are scarce and farmers are abundant.
- Land is owned by landlords who want to maximise their profits by paying substandard wages.
- Farmers are illiterate and unaware of the funds set aside by the government for minimum wage.
In your region, talk to two labourers. Choose either farm labourers or labourers working at construction sites. What wages do they get? Are they paid in cash or kind? Do they get to work regularly? Are they in debt?
Answer: Students will solve it on their own.
What are the different ways of increasing production on the same piece of land? Use examples to explain.
Answer: Due to the relatively constant amount of land under cultivation, we can employ the following strategies to increase productivity on the same plot of land.
Multiple cropping: It is the most common method of increasing output on a particular plot of land. It refers to the cultivation of two or more crops on the same plot of land throughout the year, implying that Indian farmers should plant at least two major crops each year.
For the last two decades, some farmers in India have grown third crops such as jowar and bajra in Palampur, as well as potato as a third crop.
Modern farming methods: Adopting modern agricultural technologies has the potential to increase production on the same piece of land. India’s Green Revolution exemplifies this perfectly.
In modern farming, more cultivable land should be devoted to high-yielding seed varieties and irrigation. Tractors must be used in place of simple wooden ploughs, and increased use of farm machinery such as tractors, threshers, and harvesters speeds cultivation and increases yield per hectare.
Describe the work of a farmer with 1 hectare of land.
Answer: A small farmer is one who operates on less than one hectare of land. He is involved in the following activities:
- Ploughing the field is done with tractors or bullocks.
- He sows the seeds simply by dusting them with his hands.
- To water the field, a Persian wheel is used.
- Hand pumps are used to spray insecticides.
- Crops are cut with hand-operated tools.
How do the medium and large farmers obtain capital for farming? How is it different from the small farmers?
Answer: All farmers require financing at some point during the production process.
They require both capital for fixed assets and working capital. Farmers operating on a small, medium, or large scale have their own farming savings.
They are capable of raising their own funds.
They visit the market to dispose of their surplus.
A portion of the money is set aside, while the remainder is used to acquire machinery and other raw materials, or it is lent to small farmers to boost profits.
On the other hand, small farmers must borrow money to get started.
They borrow money from large farmers, moneylenders, and dealers who supply them with agricultural supplies. They are charged exorbitant interest rates by these moneylenders and businessmen, as well as large farmers.
On what terms did Savita get a loan from Tejpal Singh? Would Savita’s condition be different if she could get a loan from the bank at a low rate of interest?
The following are the terms of Savita’s borrowing from Tejpal Singh:
- She took out a 3,000 loan at a rate of 24 percent.
- She would be given four months to repay the loan.
- She is also required to work as a farm labourer on Tejpal’s farm during the harvesting season for a daily wage of 35 rupees.
The bank could have issued her a loan at a reasonable interest rate. Additionally, she would have spent more time tending to her own 1 hectare property instead of working as a farm labourer for Tejpal Singh.
Talk to some old residents of your region and write a short report on the changes in irrigation and changes in production methods during the last 30 years.
Answer: Students will tackle it on their own.
What are the non-farm production activities taking place in your region? Make a shortlist.
Answer: To be attempted by the students themselves.
What can be done so that more non-farm activities can be started in villages?
Answer: There are fewer farm operations in villages than there used to be. In rural India, only 24 people out of every 100 are employed in non-farm activities.